SECURE SYNOPSIS: 31 AUGUST 2019
NOTE: Please keep in mind that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘mannequin answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the time period. What we are offering is content that each meets demand of the query and on the similar time provides you additional points in the type of background info.
Matter: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, vital provisions and primary structure.
1) Government must discover a stability between the proper to on-line privacy and the correct of the state to detect individuals who use the online to unfold panic and commit crimes. Critically Analyze .(250 phrases)
The Tamil Nadu Government had just lately advised the Supreme Courtroom that the consumer profiles on social media must be linked with Aadhaar to maintain a examine on the circulation of faux, defamatory and pornographic content in addition to anti-national and terror material. Nevertheless, social media platforms, notably Facebook have been resisting Aadhaar linking, stating that sharing of 12-digit Aadhaar number would violate the privateness coverage of users.
Rationale behind Aadhar-Social Media hyperlink:
- The risks of the dark net are a compelling cause behind Aadhar-Social Media hyperlink.
- There are rising situations of cyberbullying, spreading of defamatory and humiliating messages and other insupportable actions on social media. Aadhar-Social media hyperlink may help scale back it.
- Aadhaar-social media linking is required to keep a examine on pretend information and defamatory, anti-national and terror-sponsoring articles or content material and pornographic materials on social media.
- The State also referred to the Blue Whale recreation, which had reportedly claimed the lives of several youngsters in India.
Threats posed to Proper to privacy by Aadhar-Social Media link:
- The linking of consumer profiles on social media with Aadhaar would make each message and publish by the consumer traceable.
- Although the move will function a deterrent to social media instigators and perpetrators of defamatory and faux posts, it will also violate the privacy of the customers, protecting a report of every message along with the registered cellular quantity or e mail account.
- This may mean the top of personal communications.
- The privateness specialists worry that the linking would permit India’s nationalist authorities to pressure social media platforms to turn into surveillance tools.
Proper to selection also affected because of Aadhar-Social Media hyperlink:
- It’s unclear as of now of what is going to occur to those who don’t link their social media accounts to their 12-digit Aadhaar quantity. Will their accounts be deleted or blocked?
- Additionally it is unclear what action shall be taken towards parody accounts of users.
- Customers also have considerations that if a tweet they did years ago instantly goes viral out of context then will all the individuals who shared it additionally get investigated or punished or will their accounts be deactivated?
Challenges apparent in the linking of Aadhaar quantity with social media profiles:
- The personal use of Aadhaar itself has been controversial because the hanging down of Section 57 of the Aadhaar Act.
- The restricted eKYC provisions, which have been allowed only for banks and different regulated entities, are indicative of this.
- Using Aadhaar, additional, has mainly been restricted to receiving government advantages such as the Part 7 benefits.
- It is thus troublesome, legally, to find a strategy to allow Aadhaar-social media linking inside the ambit of the Supreme Courtroom’s verdict on Aadhaar.
Need of the hour:
- The Okay.S. Puttaswamy choice (2017) within the ‘privateness’ case is value mentioning right here.
- Accordingly, any state intervention for regulation of online content has to move the check of proportionality laid down by the courtroom.
- Supreme Courtroom harassed the need to discover a stability between the appropriate to on-line privacy and the appropriate of the State to detect people who use the online to unfold panic and commit crimes.
- The Supreme Courtroom also referred to as for Parliament to draft and cross a knowledge safety regulation
- Supreme Courtroom also impressed upon the respondents to convey out a strong knowledge protection regime in the form of an enactment on the idea of Justice BN SriKrishna (Retd.) Committee Report with crucial modifications thereto as may be deemed applicable.
- The government needs to maneuver away from relying on Aadhaar and linking as a one-stop answer for points starting from terrorism (SIM linking), money laundering (bank account linking), electoral fraud (voter ID linking) and now cybercrime (social media account linking).
- It is with out question that a answer is required, however it is more and more worrying because the options transfer toward deprivation of elementary rights and the first steps in the direction of a potential surveillance state.
Matter: Indian Financial system and issues referring to planning, mobilization of assets, progress, improvement and employment.
2) The thought of merging banks has turn into a apply in the current previous. In this context, talk about the problems and potential benefits related to merging of Public Sector Banks. To what extent, it might assist to deal with the burgeoning of Non-Performing Belongings?(250 phrases)
Public Sector Banks (PSBs) in India are fragmented, with a few of them reeling underneath the mounting pressures of Non Performing Belongings (NPAs). Financial Survey points out that fixed failure of banks to offer credit score to each rising and present industries has resulted in stagnation within the economic progress of the nation. The federal government plans to merge 10 public sector banks into 4. This might take the variety of banks in the nation from 27 in 2017 to 12.
Narasimham committee (1991 and 1998) advised merger of robust banks both in public sector and even with the developmental monetary institutions and NBFCs. PJ Nayak Committee in 2014 had also recommended that authorities either merge or privatize state-owned banks.
Benefits of mergers of bank:
- For Banks:
- Small banks can gear as much as international requirements with progressive services with the accepted degree of efficiency.
- PSBs, that are geographically concentrated, can broaden their protection beyond their outreach.
- A better and optimum measurement of the organization would help PSBs supply increasingly more services and assist in built-in progress of the sector.
- Consolidation also helps in enhancing the professional standards.
- This may even finish the unhealthy and intense competition happening even amongst public sector banks as of now.
- Within the international market, the Indian banks will achieve larger recognition and higher score.
- The quantity of inter-bank transactions will come down, resulting in saving of considerable time in clearing and reconciliation of accounts.
- This will even scale back unnecessary interference by board members in daily affairs of the banks.
- After mergers, bargaining power of bank employees will develop into more and visual.
- Bank employees might look ahead to higher wages and repair circumstances in future.
- The extensive disparities between the employees of varied banks in their service circumstances and monetary advantages will slender down.
- For financial system:
- Reduction in the cost of doing business.
- Technical inefficiency reduces.
- The dimensions of every business entity after merger is predicted to add power to the Indian Banking System generally and Public Sector Banks particularly.
- After merger, Indian Banks can manage their liquidity – brief term in addition to long run – place comfortably.
- Synergy of operations and scale of financial system in the new entity will end in financial savings and better income.
- A great number of posts of CMD, ED, GM and Zonal Managers shall be abolished, leading to financial savings of crores of Rupee.
- Clients could have access to fewer banks offering them wider range of products at a decrease value.
- Mergers can diversify danger administration.
- For presidency:
- The burden on the central authorities to recapitalize the public sector banks repeatedly will come down considerably.
- This may even assist in meeting more stringent norms beneath BASEL III, particularly capital adequacy ratio.
- From regulatory perspective, monitoring and control of less number of banks shall be easier after mergers.
Challenges related to mergers:
- A posh merger with a weaker and under-capitalized PSB would stall the bank’s restoration efforts as the weaknesses of 1 bank might get transferred and the merged entity might develop into weak.
- Greater banks might comply with monopolistic conduct with increased market energy – resulting in neglect of local wants.
- Amalgamation of stability sheet of PSBs will solely impression NPA cosmetically, with out truly working on NPA restoration. This can additional divert the method of NPA resolution.
- With out addressing the governance points in the banks, merging two or three public sector banks might not change the architecture.
- Until there is a change within the operating buildings, mergers might not deliver the specified leads to the long run.
- Problems to adjust prime management in institutions and the unions.
- Mergers will end in shifting/closure of many ATMs, Branches and controlling workplaces, as it isn’t prudent and economical to keep so many banks concentrated in a number of pockets, notably in city and metropolitan centres.
- Mergers will end in instant job losses on account of huge number of individuals taking VRS on one aspect and slow down or stoppage of additional recruitment on the opposite.
- This can worsen the unemployment state of affairs further and should create regulation and order issues and social disturbances.
- Mergers will end in conflict of various organizational cultures. Conflicts will come up in the area of techniques and processes too.
- When an enormous bank books large loss or crumbles, there might be an enormous jolt in the complete banking business. Its repercussions shall be felt in all places.
- Giving the PSBs autonomy along with accountability.
- Merged entity would require capital help from the government, otherwise such a merger wouldn’t enhance their capitalisation profile.
- Twin regulation by the Ministry of Finance and RBI on PSBs typically leads to paralysis in choice making – which makes consolidation of banks a redundant measure if they don’t seem to be given energy to behave swiftly, as pointed by PJ Nayak.
- Governance of public banks needs to be improved earlier than making any vital change in any emerging architecture.
- Greater banks supply extra resilience to the banking sector however overlooking greater purple flags like robust credit score appraisal and danger control system would do little help in creating strong banks.
- Subsequently due give attention to making certain robust foundation of PSBs is necessary.
- RBI should proceed to offer banking licences for extra small finance banks as well as common banks together with bank mergers
- Authorities on its part would do properly to start out infrastructure improvement banks to fund infrastructure tasks and relieve PSBs of this activity.
Merger is a good idea. Nevertheless, this must be carried out with right banks for the appropriate reasons. Merger can also be tough given the large challenges banks face, together with the dangerous mortgage drawback that has plunged many public sector banks in an unprecedented disaster.
Matter: Indian Financial system and issues referring to planning, mobilization of assets, progress, improvement and employment.
three) With the acceptance of the Bimal Jalan committee’s report, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to switch one lakh seventy six thousand to the federal government. Recommend the methods by means of which authorities can prudently utilize these funds?(250 phrases)
The central board of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) lately determined to transfer a surplus of Rs 1.76 lakh crore to the government-its highest switch ever-sparking a fierce debate. The federal government was, it have to be famous, appearing on the suggestions of a committee chaired by former RBI governor Bimal Jalan, on capital switch.
Bimal Jalan committee Suggestions:
- The surplus from the central bank comprised two components-Rs 1.23 lakh crore of surplus for the yr 2018-19 and a further Rs 52,637 crore of excess provisions that was made out there as per the revised economic capital framework advisable by the Bimal Jalan committee.
- It instructed that the framework may be periodically reviewed after each five years.
- It really helpful to align the central financial institution’s accounting yr with the financial yr, which might scale back the necessity for paying interim dividend.
- The panel really helpful clear distinction between the 2 elements of financial capital, realised equity and revaluation balances. That is because of the risky nature of the revaluation reserves.
- Solely realised fairness built from income have to be distributed.
- The panel beneficial that the Contingency Fund be maintained within a variety of 6.5% to 5.5% of RBI’s stability sheet.
- Therefore, the excess from the pre-decided 5.5% degree or Rs. 52,637 Cr has been written back, that is transferred to the Centre.
- Revaluation good points from market fluctuations on overseas foreign money, gold or other belongings have to be retained. Revaluation balances weren’t distributable.
- Hence, bulk of RBI’s legacy reserves are ring-fenced from switch demands.
- The Bimal Jalan committee also needs to be complimented for clearly specifying that the revaluation reserve can’t be used to bridge shortfalls in other reserves.
Methods via which the fund can be used prudently:
- The amount might either be used to offer a fiscal stimulus to the economy-which is within the grip of a slowdown-
- It might be used to scale back off-balance sheet borrowings.
- The other choice is to use it to satisfy an expected shortfall in revenue collections.
- Within the Union price range, the federal government had introduced an optimistic state of affairs of raising Rs 4.76 lakh crore in further assets to satisfy finances expenses.
- Nevertheless, since there is a clear slowdown forward, this income target will not be met, by which case the surplus from the RBI can be used to bridge the shortfall.
- Usually, the money is transferred to the Consolidated Fund of India from which salaries and pensions to government staff are paid and interest payments achieved, apart from spending on authorities programmes.
- The massive pay-out may also help the federal government reduce on deliberate borrowings and maintain rates of interest comparatively low.
- If the government manages to satisfy its revenue targets, the windfall achieve can result in a lower fiscal deficit.
- The other choice is to earmark these funds for public spending or specific tasks, which might result in a revival in demand in certain sectors and increase financial exercise.
- If the tax income progress picks up, then the government can use the extra cash to clear the dues of the Food Corporation of India and fertiliser corporations to minimise spillover of deficits to the subsequent yr.
- The additional funds may also be used to spend on much-needed capital expenditure.
Views of Economists:
- Some economists have welcomed the move as it’s going to assist the government counter the shortfall in revenue and tax collection.
- Since inflationary strain is low, economists consider that the transfer won’t have a adverse influence in the long run.
- One other group of economists which embrace the likes of Raghuram Rajan and former RBI governor Urjit Patel stated earlier that the transfer might put RBI in a weak place aside from diminishing its autonomy.
The decision of the RBI Board have to be welcomed as it has not come a day sooner and will assist the federal government in combating the economic slowdown and to evolve to the fiscal targets. It is hoped that the federal government shall be prudent in using these funds.
Matter: Numerous Security forces and businesses and their mandate.
four) The need for a single-point adviser between the government and the armed forces has been a long-standing demand of the defence establishment. On this context, talk about the challenges and strategic benefits of creating The Chief of Defence Employees publish in Indian Army.(250 phrases)
The Chief of Defence Employees (CDS) is a excessive army office that oversees and coordinates the working of the three Providers, and gives seamless tri-service views and single-point recommendation to the Government (in India’s case, to the Prime Minister) on long-term defence planning and management, including manpower, gear and strategy, and above all, “jointsmanship” in operations. It shall present “effective leadership at the prime degree” to the three wings of the armed forces, and to help enhance coordination among them.
CDS – the strategic advantages:
- The appointment of the CDS will definitely change the civil-military stability, and, if carried out appropriately, will tackle a number of the grievances of the Armed Forces pertaining to their standing vis-à-vis the civil providers.
- The underlying rationale for appointing a CDS is to separate administration and command of the Armed Forces.
- To take the logic of the CDS to its conclusion, the Armed Forces have to be operationally restructured into theatre commands—full joint war-fighting formations—led by combatant commanders.
- Within the years ahead, a mixture of climate change, violent non-state actors and risky politics will improve the demands on the federal government to deploy army forces past the subcontinent.
- Despite a mess of threats, India’s Armed Forces have very restricted capability to operate abroad. Therefore, the necessity for an expeditionary CDS.
- From a defence policy perspective, the CDS presents us with the chance to optimize defence economics and make expenditure simpler.
Challenges of CDS:
- The problem, nevertheless, might be execution and stopping the political apprehensions, bureaucracy-military and inter-service rivalry from scuttling these reforms.
- Human capability deficit: Each particular person service neither understands trendy industrial supply chains or economics of scale, however more importantly because their respective leaderships refuse to rationalise and streamline their providers.
- Poor management and atrocious provide chains because of a heavily-outdated logistics chain, too many several types of ammunition and gear to bring about economies of scale and common disinterest in logistics is complicating.
- The issue of mass producing low cost precision munitions continues to be absent in India.
- The heavily army-centric strategy of the Indian army as an entire, ignoring the truth that it is air forces and navies that win trendy wars.
- Worse still, while armies themselves have moved in the direction of a much less manpower-intensive paradigm, the Indian Military continues to take a position heavily in manpower, as for instance the ill-fated mountain strike divisions.
- To take the logic of the CDS to its conclusion, the Armed Forces must be operationally restructured into theatre instructions
- The late strategic thinker Okay. Subrahmanyam argued that the army and navy chiefs ought to first hand over their command to theatre commanders, with the air chief doing so at a later stage.
- Three theatres are simple: Northern, Western and Southern to deal with the threats from China, Pakistan and the Indian Ocean, respectively.
- He envisaged doubling the air drive to 60 squadrons by 2030 and putting them beneath theatre commands.
- The options are required on the overseas interplay, instructional, and industrial degree — not at the prime, but on the bottom. This isn’t a macro drawback, it’s a severe micro drawback.
Most nations with advanced militaries have such a submit, albeit with varying degrees of energy and authority. The USA Chairman Joint Chiefs of Employees Committee (CJCSC), for example, is extremely highly effective, with a legislated mandate and sharply delineated powers. The position of the CDS becomes essential in occasions of conflict.
Matter: Accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance;
5) What do you perceive by term governance, good governance and moral governance?(250 words)
Governance might be described as the process of determination making and the method by which selections are carried out. Government is likely one of the actors in governance aside from curiosity teams, NGOs and civil society organizations and so forth. Governance is government in action.
Good governance is concerning the processes for making and implementing selections. It’s not about making ‘right’ selections, however about the absolute best process for making these selections.
Good governance share a number of attributes as being participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, efficient and environment friendly, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of regulation. It assures that corruption will get minimized, the views of minorities are taken under consideration and that the voices of probably the most weak in society are heard in decision-making. Additionally it is responsive to the present and future needs of society. But the concept of inclusive progress requires amalgamation of moral perspective in the choice making process.
E.g.: The implementation of Right to Info Act which improved transparency and accountability. It has been extremely praised by many UN businesses.
Ethical governance denotes administrative measures, procedures and insurance policies that fulfil criteria required for the ethically good or acceptable dealing with of public affairs, such as in public administration, public health care, schooling, and social security.
For instance authorities packages and insurance policies related to developmental tasks come underneath the concept of good governance as it goals at inclusive progress and improvement with proper accountability and transparency system but it becomes ethical governance solely when the individuals displaced resulting from land acquisition are rehabilitated correctly with required livelihood amenities.
Governance may be likened to behave of ruling, Good governance to the act of serving & moral governance to letting righteousness work by itself. When all act in accordance with the correct laws of the universe there shall be no requirement of a ruler & no requirement of punishment & all might be equally responsible partners, in keeping with Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of Swaraj.
Matter: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical foundation of governance and probity;
6) “Public service have to be greater than doing a job effectively and truthfully. It have to be an entire dedication to the individuals and to the nation.” Clarify.(250 words)
Effectivity and honesty in a public servant are sine qua non for an environment friendly and sustainable administration. The concept of public dealing with over the duties to maintain the society to the state itself is enough to keep such values. The public servants are the repositories of public conscience, they secure their livelihoods and control the macro and micro financial system. Nevertheless these traits alone aren’t enough.
Importance of Dedication in public service:
- Dedication means high quality of involving oneself utterly or applying one’s consideration, time to a specific activity, cause or an individual.
- Dedication in public service is required as civil servants in India, a creating country have to carry out the common administrative and in addition play an essential position in socio-economic improvement of the nation.
- In finishing up these activities he may be faced with several obstructions like social opposition towards any programme which is towards their deep rooted belief, lack of help from political government.
- Schemes for selling household planning are usually opposed in rural as they contemplate contraceptives as taboos here dedication is required to fulfil the objective of wholesome society. One’s staff and superiors could also be involved in corruption. These obstacles can solely be overcome when one has perseverance and dedication.
- Public service is just not a aim however journey which can be non-exciting and undesirable at occasions, only a devoted civil servant can remain motivated in such situations.
- Dedication would make sense of obligation an finish in itself, which might be unbiased of task.
Dedication ensures that the sense of obligation turns into an finish in itself. It isn’t dependent upon the character of task given to a civil servant. Dedication to public service is very important, especially in nations like India. There can be many inner and external elements which can drive you to deviate you out of your aim. Underneath such situation it’s your dedication in the direction of the structure as well as in the direction of the insurance policies of government which can assist you in carrying out your obligation.