Insights secure synopsis SECURE 2019 tech


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NOTE: Please keep in mind that following ‘solutions’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They’re NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content material that both meets demand of the question and on the similar time provides you additional factors within the form of background info.

Matter:  Salient features of the Representation of Individuals’s Act. Separation of powers between numerous organs dispute redressal mechanisms and establishments.

1) An Election commissioner is a watch canine however not a blood hound. comment with determined instances. (250 words)

The hindu

Why this question:

The article captures the dissenting turf dealing with the election commission of India.

Key demands of the question:

The answer should briefly talk about how the election fee is a watch canine of democracy and never a blood hound.


Comment– right here we have now to precise our information and understanding of the difficulty and type an general opinion thereupon.

Structure of the reply:


In a couple of introductory strains clarify the background/context of the query.


The answer must clarify first the issues dealing with the election commission of India. Highlight the small print of the controversy.

Clarify  how election commissioner Ashok Lavasa wrote thrice to Chief Election Commissioner Sunil Arora on the difficulty.

The Election Commissioner was also reminded of the present legal position that, in non-quasi-judicial matters, dissenting notes were not included in the orders.

Talk about the consequences of the above on the powers and features of the ECI and how that makes ECI only a watchdog and not a blood hound.


Conclude with method ahead.


Just lately, an Election Commissioner had dissented with the opinion of his colleagues within the Election Fee in five totally different matters pertaining to alleged violations of the Mannequin Code of Conduct. The EC has been extensively criticised for giving a collection of ‘clear chits’ to the PM. This was despite some questionable remarks that appeared to solicit votes in the identify of the armed forces. On this context, the Election Fee has determined by majority that dissenting opinions in Model Code of Conduct (MCC) disputes won’t be made a part of any ultimate order.


Election Fee of India and its working:

  • The Election Commission of India draws its authority from the Constitution itself. Underneath Article 324, the powers of “superintendence, path and management of elections” are to be vested in an Election Commission.
  • The CEC and ECs are appointed by the President to tenure of six years, or as much as the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They take pleasure in the identical status and obtain salary and perks as judges of the Supreme Courtroom of India.
  • All three Election Commissioners have equal say in the determination making of the Fee
  • The regulation requires the multi-member EC to transact business unanimously as far as potential.

Enterprise of ECI:

  • Part 10 (Disposal of business by Election Fee) of The Election Fee (Circumstances of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Enterprise) Act, 1991, lays down that “all enterprise of the EC shall, as far as potential, be transacted unanimously”.
  • Dissent is, nevertheless, offered for in the Act itself, which says: “If the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and different Election Commissioners (ECs) differ in opinion on any matter, such matter shall be decided in response to the opinion of the majority”.
  • All opinions carry equal weight, which suggests the CEC might be overruled by the 2 ECs.
  • If some distinction of opinion persists even after oral deliberations and discussions, such dissent is recorded within the file.
  • In regular apply, while speaking the decision of the Fee in government matters, the bulk view is conveyed to the parties involved.
  • The dissent stays recorded in the file.
  • In case dissent is to be recorded in a case of judicative nature, the dissenting member might wish to document a separate opinion/order.
  • Nevertheless, despite the existence of the supply to take selections by majority since 1993, very not often has dissent been recorded.
  • When a matter is deliberated upon by the 3 Commissioners, they normally comply with a standard course of action.
  • This doesn’t, nevertheless, mean that there isn’t a disagreement between the Commissioners.

Nevertheless, in the current case Election Commissioner Ashok Lavasa had written thrice to the Chief Election Commissioner Sunil Arora in this regard. He had conveyed his determination to keep away from proceedings related to the MCC if the dissenting views were not included within the orders. With ECI’s current choice, the dissenting opinions will only be included in inner information, as per earlier apply. Individuals are entitled to know whether or not the poll panel’s key selections are unanimous.


The MCC is a moral code and never backed by Statute. This additionally reduces the facility of ECI to take strict actions towards flawed doings. The onus on EC to take care of a level-playing area and enforce the election code is sort of excessive, particularly when its credibility is underneath query. There is a have to codify the true powers of CEC and ECs and the procedure to be followed in case of extraordinary situations to keep the integrity and sanctity of ECI intact.

Matter: Issues referring to improvement and administration of Social Sector/Providers referring to Well being, Schooling, Human Assets.

2) What are the bottlenecks in the supply of vitamin interventions to pregnant ladies in India?  Talk about extra so specifically with respect to Maternal vitamin and recommend options to deal with the same. (250 phrases)



Why this query:

The article discusses intimately the problems surrounding maternal vitamin interventions in India. The article emphasizes on how Maternal vitamin is necessary as a result of its crucial and sophisticated affiliation with ladies’s well-being and implications for youngster improvement.

Key demand of the query:

The answer should consider the bottlenecks in the delivery of vitamin to the ladies dealing with maternal malnourishment. One has to recommend options to deal with such maternal and baby undernutrition prevalent and analyse the failures of the past and current mechanisms making an attempt to deal with the state of affairs.

Directive phrase:

Talk about – This is an all-encompassing directive – it’s a must to debate on paper by going by way of the small print of the problems concerned by analyzing every considered one of them. You need to give reasons for each for and towards arguments.

Structure of the answer:


In a number of introductory strains clarify what you perceive by maternal vitamin.


  • Body of the answer to seize the next dimensions:
  • Importance of Maternal vitamin to ladies’s well-being and implications for baby improvement.
  • Quote details to spotlight the difficulty. ( from NFHS-Four and so on.)
  • Talk about what are the issues at present related to vitamin intervention schemes and policies? Why are they failing? – Entry to prenatal and postnatal care is restricted, lack of budgets for vitamin interventions, delay in fund releases and lack of employees and infrastructure towards sanctions/norms, and qualitative evidence and so forth.
  • Then transfer on to recommend an analysis as to what must be accomplished? How can one overcome these challenges?
  • What sort of overhaul is required and so forth.


Conclude with what must be the best way forward.


The time period “maternal vitamin” focuses attention on ladies as moms, on their nutritional standing because it pertains to the bearing and nurturing of youngsters. At the similar time, ladies additionally play very important, if typically unacknowledged, roles in their families, communities, and societies. Nevertheless, the poor dietary standing of many women in India at the moment compromises their capability to satisfy the vigorous calls for of their multiple roles as moms and productive staff


Bottlenecks in the supply of vitamin interventions to pregnant ladies in India:

  • Poverty and meals insecurity: In accordance with Multi Dimension Poverty Index (MPI) 2018 of UNDP, 364 million Indians proceed to expertise acute deprivations in numerous social indicators. Over one in four multi-dimensionally poor in India are beneath ten years of age.
  • Poor access to well being providers: Based on a The Lancet research (2016) India ranks 145th among 195 nations when it comes to quality and accessibility of healthcare, behind its neighbours like China, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Bhutan.
  • Lack of schooling and knowledge: As per Annual State of Schooling Report 2017, India’s 125 million youngsters between 14 and 18 years of age are ill-equipped to read, write or even do primary arithmetic. It said that the gender divide in cognition levels worsens with rise in age, as women are sometimes compelled to drop faculty for quite a lot of causes.
  • Poor sanitation and lack of availability of recent consuming water: In response to Niti Aayog’s Composite Water Administration Index 2018, 600 million individuals face high-to-extreme water stress; 75 per cent of the households would not have consuming water; and 84 per cent should not have piped water entry; and 70 per cent of our water is contaminated. When water is on the market, it is more likely to be contaminated, leading to almost 2, 00, 000 deaths annually.
  • Climate change and environmental degradation: In accordance with Inter-governmental Panel on Local weather Change (IPCC) Assessment Report-5 2014, in India, the estimated countrywide agricultural loss in 2030 is over $7 billion resulting from climate change. It is going to severely affect the revenue of 10 per cent of the inhabitants. Agriculture, the mainstay of the Indian financial system, will see dramatic modifications in yields, affecting individuals’s right to meals security.
  • Social ills like early baby marriage and compelled labour: In response to the newest figures of UNICEF India, 27% per cent marriages in India in 2016 have been baby marriages. Baby marriage impacts society as an entire since baby marriage reinforces a cycle of poverty and perpetuates gender discrimination, illiteracy and malnutrition as well as excessive infant and maternal mortality charges.
  • Poor breastfeeding: In response to a report (2017) by UNICEF and WHO in collaboration with the International Breastfeeding Collective, India is among the world’s 5 largest rising economies the place investment in breastfeeding is considerably low resulting in an annual loss of $14 billion as a consequence of baby deaths and cognitive losses from poor breastfeeding practices.
  • Financial and monetary disability of girls: Regardless of financial and academic progress, female participation within the labour pressure of India has fallen to 24% in 2011, from 31% in 2004. India is 11th from the bottom on the planet in ladies’s labour-force participation rates
  • Improve in inequality: India ranked 147 out of 157 nations when it comes to its commitment to decreasing inequality in accordance with Commitment to Decreasing Inequality Index developed by Oxfam and Improvement Finance International.

Authorities initiatives:

  • Accessibility and Affordability of Meals: National Food Security Act 2013, Mid-Day Meals and supplementary vitamin beneath Integrated Baby Improvement Scheme (ICDS).
  • Water and Sanitation: Nationwide Rural Consuming Water Programme and Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • Maternity Advantages: Compensate wage loss throughout pregnancy-Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana.
  • Full immunization: Mission Indradhanush and roll out of Rotavirus and Pneumococcal vaccines.
  • Initiation of Early Breastfeeding- MAA National Breastfeeding Programme.
  • Delaying the age of marriage and making certain hole between pregnancies-Beti Bachao Beti Padhao and Nationwide Health Mission IEC.
  • Weekly Iron Folic Acid (IFA) Supplementation

Measures needed:

  • ICDS System Strengthening: There ought to be a mechanism for progress monitoring which would come with, early registration and weight monitoring, monthly weight monitoring, quarterly peak/length monitoring.
  • Improved Service Delivery: Will embrace convergence of providers akin to Immunisation, institutional supply, consuming water and sanitation and environment friendly service deliver.
  • Use of data know-how (ITC): use of ICT interventions for addressing beneath vitamin consists of
    • Actual time monitoring-Population, target teams and so forth.
    • Vitamin Mapping
    • Knowledge Evaluation-Connecting Gaps.
  • Toddler and younger youngster feeding promotions (IYCF): It will embrace
    • Behaviour change
    • Multi-media creatives: Exclusive breastfeeding, Early initiation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding
  • Correct implementation of Nationwide Vitamin Mission (POSHAN Abhiyan).
  • Diversified food: Diversifying the eating regimen which should embrace required amount of nutrients is a better option to include under-nutrition on the base.
  • An inclusive and holistic strategy: together with controlling/regulating meals worth, strengthening the general public distribution system (PDS) and revenue help policies for making food cheaper are essential steps.
  • With a purpose to enhance their revenue and food state of affairs, it is subsequently crucial that ladies acquire access to assets, that is, to credit, land, and agricultural technique of production.
  • Gender equality is likely one of the means to improve the revenue thereby numerous food basket of the individuals. The Meals and Agriculture Group of the United Nations estimates that if ladies farmers had the identical assets as men, it will have led to 150 million fewer hungry individuals.


The health service delivery system is on the core of maternal vitamin interventions; strengthening them will go a great distance in enhancing the well being of girls in India.

Matter:   Awareness within the fields of IT, Area, Computer systems, robotics, nano-technology, bio know-how and issues referring to mental property rights.

three)  Consider the provisions of the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy in India. What are the challenges being confronted by it? Recommend measures wanted to make sure transparency and enhance safety of the same.(250 words)

The hindubuisnessline


Why this question:

The article highlights the urgent need the to deal with Mental Property (IP) considerations. Over the past yr, India took steps to deal with intellectual property challenges and promote IP protection and enforcement. Nevertheless, most of the actions haven’t but translated into concrete advantages for innovators and creators, and long-standing deficiencies persist. India stays one of many world’s most difficult major economies with respect to protection and enforcement of IP.

Key demand of the question:

The reply should talk about intimately the salient options of the present IPR coverage of India and what are the challenges it faces and what measures are required to take it further.

Directive word:

Consider – If you end up requested to guage, you need to move a sound judgement concerning the fact of the given statement in the query or the topic based mostly on evidences.  It’s a must to appraise the price of the assertion in question. There’s scope for forming a private opinion right here.

Structure of the answer


write a number of introductory strains on the significance of a strong IPR coverage.


  • Reply should have the following dimensions coated:
  • Talk about what is an IPR coverage? What are the salient options of India’s IPR regime?
  • Explain the precise points associated, Why India is lagging behind?
  • What must be executed?
  • Means ahead.

Conclusion –

Conclude with significance and what must be the best way ahead.


Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are legal rights, which outcome from mental invention, innovation and discovery in the industrial, scientific, literary and inventive fields. These rights entitle a person or group to the moral and financial rights of creators of their creation. The National IPR Coverage (2016) is a vision document that aims to create and exploit synergies between all forms of mental property (IP), concerned statutes and businesses. It units in place an institutional mechanism for implementation, monitoring and evaluation. It aims to incorporate and adapt international greatest practices to the Indian state of affairs.


Seven aims of IPR Coverage:

  • IPR Awareness: To create public awareness concerning the economic, social and cultural benefits of IPRs amongst all sections of society.
  • Era of IPRs: To stimulate the era of IPRs.
  • Authorized and Legislative Framework: To have robust and effective IPR laws, which stability the interests of rights house owners with larger public interest.
  • Administration and Administration: To modernize and strengthen service-oriented IPR administration.
  • Commercialization of IPRs: Get worth for IPRs via commercialization.
  • Enforcement and Adjudication: To strengthen the enforcement and adjudicatory mechanisms for combating IPR infringements.
  • Human Capital Improvement: To strengthen and broaden human assets, establishments and capacities for educating, coaching, analysis and talent building in IPRs.

Essential highlights of Nationwide Mental Property Rights (IPR) Policy

  • The Policy aims to push IPRs as a marketable monetary asset, promote innovation and entrepreneurship, whereas defending public interest.
  • To be able to have robust and effective IPR laws, steps can be taken — including assessment of present IP legal guidelines — to update and improve them or to take away anomalies and inconsistencies.
  • The policy is solely compliant with the WTO’s agreement on TRIPS.
  • Special thrust on consciousness era and effective enforcement of IPRs, apart from encouragement of IP commercialisation by way of numerous incentives.
  • India will interact constructively in the negotiation of worldwide treaties and agreements in session with stakeholde
  • The federal government will look at accession to some multilateral treaties which are in India’s interest, and develop into a signatory to these treaties which India has de facto carried out to enable it to participate of their determination making process, the policy stated.
  • It suggests making the division of commercial policy and promotion (DIPP) the nodal company for all IPR issues. Copyrights related points may even come underneath DIPP’s ambit from that of the Human Resource Improvement (HRD) Ministry.
  • Movies, music, industrial drawings shall be all coated by copyright.
  • The Coverage also seeks to facilitate domestic IPR filings, for the whole worth chain from IPR era to commercialization. It goals to promote research and improvement via tax advantages.

Points with the present policy:

  • Policy is aimed toward a gold rush in the direction of IPR. A blind rush in the direction of IP might be a deterrent to innovation itself by proscribing information circulate.
  • Policy recommends scientist and professors to convert all their discoveries into IP which inturn has the potential to curb the free move of data
  • IPR coverage is pushed by the agenda of IP maximalism, the place IP house owners’ rights will probably be maximised at the cost of public curiosity. This (coverage) will affect courts and judges who may contemplate rights of patentees above that on widespread man in certain instances.
  • Connection between patenting and software of patented information is but to be established. Hence, patenting and never applying the brand new invention might deter progress
  • Policy recommends criminalization of unauthorised copying of flicks – which is just a civil flawed.
  • Not understanding the modes of creativity and sharing in “shadow financial system “, the policy leans in the direction of superimposition of formal IP framework.
  • Whereas IP might accelerate innovation in sure applied sciences it in flip impedes in others. Coverage recommends scientist and professors to convert all their discoveries
  • In accordance with USTR, Patent applicants face pricey and time-consuming patent opposition hurdles, lengthy timelines for receiving patents, and excessive reporting necessities

Measures wanted:

  • Fostering an setting the place innovation thrives and a information financial system is built, is the important thing concept. Therefore, the coverage should have a stability.
  • It should encourage patenting and on the similar time be sure that patentability of a product/process does not deter additional innovation and progress.
  • Mental Property should not be about patents on paper but dearth of software in reality. T
  • The organisations comparable to CSIR and others have to be inspired to work upon socially useful purposes of their patents.
  • Help for innovation needs to be accompanied with devices that guard local corporations towards the misuse of market power, coercive bargaining and aggressive acquisition methods.
  • India needs to spread awareness on IPR in public and for its traditional industries to enable truthful monetisation of IP Rights.
  • It must safeguard its patents, copyrights and traditional information by making certain straightforward IPR rules.

Matter : Awareness in the fields of IT, Area, Computer systems, robotics, nano-technology, bio know-how and issues referring to intellectual property rights.

4) Clarify the position played by robotics and its software to the agriculture sector of the country. What are its future prospects? How far can Indian agriculture foresee mechanization of agriculture for its progress?(250 phrases)


Why this question:

The article discusses intimately the appliance and position performed by the robotics in the upbringing of Agri sector in India. The paper discusses intimately scope of robotics and mechanization it brings to Agriculture in India.

Key demand of the query:

Answer should talk about the position of robotics and prospect of it in Indian agriculture and mechanization and automation of the identical.


Explain – Clarify the subject by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what’s the specific context. You have to be defining key terms where ever applicable, and substantiate with related related information.

Construction of the reply:


In a number of introductory strains spotlight the context of the query.


In short talk about the following elements:

  • Present state of affairs of agriculture in India as compared with different nations that have developed agriculture methods like US, Iran and so forth.
  • Talk about how robotics could be utilized to agrarian techniques? What advantages it has and may deliver?
  • Explain the precise case of India.
  • Talk about the scope and advantages in detail.
  • Clarify the challenges involved.


Conclude with approach forward.


Robotics is the department of know-how that deals with the design, development, operation, structural depositions, manufacture   and   software   of   robots.  Immediately  Robotics  is the  rapidly  rising  subject  and  it  is  continue  in  research, design,  and  construct  new  robots  that  serve  numerous  sensible purposes. Because it has taken drive in numerous fields is there any risk that robot might be introduced within the farming.


The preferred purposes of Robots in agriculture appear to fall into four main categories:

  • Crop and Soil Monitoring: Corporations are leveraging sensors and numerous IoT-based technologies to watch crop and soil well being.
  • Predictive Agricultural Analytics: Numerous AI and machine learning tools are being used to foretell the optimum time to sow seeds, get alerts on dangers from pest attacks, and extra.
  • Supply Chain Efficiencies: Corporations are utilizing real-time knowledge analytics on data-streams coming from a number of sources to construct an environment friendly and sensible supply chain.
  • Agricultural Robots: Corporations are creating and programming autonomous robots to handle essential agricultural duties reminiscent of harvesting crops at a better volume and quicker pace than human labourers.


Some examples of Agricultural Robots:

  • Green seeker sensor: This   sensible machine reads a plant’s wants after which applies precisely the amount of fertilizer of herbicides needed. Green Seeker is a machine which makes use of the sensors to let the plant inform us that what it needs.
  • Robot drone tractors: A brand new  era  of  robot  drones  is  revolutionizing  the best way  we  farm,  with  manufacturing  of  totally different  robots,  e. saying  the  first ever  robot  drone  tractor  turns into  part of the agricultural  mainstream. Robotic will determine where to plant, when to harvest and how to decide on one of the best route for crisscrossing the farmland.
  • Flying Robots To Spread Fertilizer: A flying robotic screens the growing condition of the crops over farmlands  in  Ili,  a  Kazak  autonomous  prefecture  in Northwest  China’s  Xinjiang Uygur  autonomous    With digital camera gear and an automated fertilizing system in the front, the    robot can fly autonomously and apply fertilizer independently.
  • Fruit Choosing Robots: The analysis continues to be in full progress, especially as the robots must be rigorously designed in order that they do not bruise the fruit while choosing. One answer  is  the  use  of  suction grippers,   used   on   automated   fruit   choosing   machines manufactured,  for  instance,  by 
  • Robotic Cattle Grazing and Automated Milking: Is the milking of dairy animals, especially    of dairy    cattle, without human labour. Automated milking methods (AMS), also    referred to as    voluntary    milking    methods (VMS), have been developed within the late 20th century. They’re commercially out there because the early 1990s.

Scope of farm robots in India:

  • Our farm   gear   corporations   and   researchers   have developed  a  lot  of  small  and  heavy  farm  gear  for conventional  farming  needs  but  some  sort  of  robotic  and pneumatic  mechanism  are  required  in  precision 
  • If the robots are  getting used for  weed management,  that  will  assist  to  scale back  the  herbicides  usage  and the produces will flip into an organic, the same means robots can   be   used   for   transplanting   the   seedlings   to   keep away from intensive   
  • A number of impressive revolutionary  applied sciences  by  rural  inventors  e. electric  motors  can  be  operated  remotely  by  cell  telephones, it’s very useful to farmers in summer season because the energy supply   is   irregular.  
  • Superior clever machines  in  farming,  Sensors  or  readers  and  hand  held PDAs  are  going  to  be  great  helpful  in  computation  and accuracy  in   
  • There are  lot  of  hurdles  taken  in  the agriculture  sector  in  all  nations  but  specifically  in 
  • Farmers are reducing in India. Many are leaving the farming career by telling some repeated widespread sentences  that  it  is  no  longer  profitable  and  none need to get losses and it’s turning into risky daily.
  • The disadvantages make the kids also disinterested in that.


Robotics will certainly deliver the agriculture revolution. Though the street ahead isn’t very clean. We have now to calculate the feasibility, sustainability and efficiency meeting the world’s meals wants. Nevertheless, it might be fascinating to see how the farmers, agri-businessmen and the shoppers will utilize the facility of Robotics and digital-mechanization to shape the way forward for this business.

Matter:  Conservation, environmental air pollution and degradation, environmental impression assessment.

5) Based on a new research released by the World Assets Institute (WRI), India’s forest cowl stands at 21% towards international commonplace of 33.3%. critically analyse the alarming state of affairs of India’s declining forest cover. What must be executed?(250 words)


Why this question:

The query is to debate the current alarming circumstances of forest cowl in India.

Demand of the question:

The answer should clarify the present circumstances of the forest cowl, causes which have lead to the decline and ideas as to what must be the best way ahead to deal with the alarming situation.


Critically analyze – When asked to research, you  have to look at methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into element elements and current them as an entire in a abstract. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one wants to take a look at the great and dangerous of the subject and give a good judgement.

Construction of the reply:

The answer to the question should have the following elements:

  • Quote the report and details of it – World Assets Institute (WRI), India’s forest cover stands at 21% towards international normal of 33.3%.
  • Talk about what are the explanations causing the decline in the forest cowl?
  • What are its consequences?
  • What must be finished to beat the alarming concern?


Conclude with what ought to be the best way ahead.


Forests are among the first casualties as human populations explode. It’s estimated that between 1950 and 1980, around 50 lakh hectares of forestland was diverted for non-forestry activities and India is unable to succeed in the nationwide aim of 33 per cent. Yet forestlands continue to be diverted for non-forestry purposes in an ad hoc method. Within the mild of the modern challenges like climate change, human-wildlife conflict, intensifying water disaster, growing air and water pollution and deteriorating surroundings, urgent action is required to preserve and develop the forest cover.


The International Forest Watch (GFW) released by World Assets Institute (WRI) reveals that India has lost over 1.6 million hectare of tree cowl between 2001 and 2018, about 4 occasions the geographical space of Goa.

Findings of the report:

  • In India, five north-eastern states — Nagaland, Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Manipur — have been chargeable for over 50% of all tree cowl loss in the same period.
  • The primary cause for lack of tree cover in the north-eastern states is diversion of forest land and local weather change.
  • The lack of tree cover contributed to 172 MT of carbon emissions in India throughout this era.
  • The analysis reveals the whole tree cover which was 12% of the nation’s geographical space in 2000 decreased to 8.9% in 2010.

Challenges leading to alarming state of affairs of declining forest cover:

  • There have been situations of private players displacing tribal communities from the forests and chopping don forests for industries.
  • The ecosystem providers carried out by plantations which have a number of timber grown for business purposes cannot be equated with those of an undisturbed assemblage of crops, timber and animals.
  • A flawed definition of “forest cover” permits the government to say progress in complete forest cover despite large-scale deforestation.
  • India’s forest cover might truly be masking large deforestation because the areas that have turned green will not be essentially natural forests, but plantations
  • Environmental economists have come to regard the calculation of nationwide accounts of wealth and improvement as weak, as a result of governments do not add the benefits of features resembling flood management and local weather moderation to the value of forests.
  • Rotational felling of timber by forest departments, diversion of forest lands for developmental activities, submergence of forest cover, agriculture enlargement, biotic pressures and pure disasters as other reasons for the decrease within the forest cover.
  • There have been situations of violation of forest right act, even the CAMPA act, land acquisition guidelines and laws.
  • The newest draft forest coverage overlooks the ecological and social implications of carbon and production forestry and the need for decentralised democracy.

Measures needed:

  • India must evaluate the programmes that it has been pursuing to revive forests, and transfer away from monoculture plantations which are favoured by even forest improvement firms in lots of States.
  • Scientific reforms to convey true nature back are needed.
  • The newest assessment categorises more than 300,000 sq km of area as open forests with a tree canopy of 10-40%. These lands present the chance to convey back numerous, indigenous timber.
  • Such a measure, mixed with a policy towards permitting open forged mining, can convey a few renaissance.
  • Dedicated efforts can be required to protect the valuable forests of the Northeast.
  • The forest coverage have to be ready by involving the stakeholders viz. individuals along with the state.
  • Group-led initiatives have successfully regenerated forests by adopting sustainable- use practices, regeneration by way of conventional information of forests and species, guarding and penalizing poachers, amongst others. These have to be promoted.
  • Revolutionary options like Tree Ambulance in Tamil Nadu have to be emulated throughout the nation.
  • Determine and scale back the dependency. As an example gasoline wooden by way of LPG connections and selling fast rising timbers in forest fringes, Grazing by way of stall feeding or rotational grazing, controlling business exploitation of forests, undertake zero-tolerance to fires setting targets to scale back fires by 50%, 25% to 10% and so forth.
  • Improve surveillance and setup authorized cell in forest department to follow-up on courtroom instances


India’s numerous forests help the livelihoods of 250 million individuals, providing them firewood, fodder, bamboo, beedi leaves and lots of different merchandise. The timber presently benefits the state treasury. There’s a need of revamping India’s forest coverage.

Matter: Contributions of ethical thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6) Write a word on reformers and directors who are position fashions for inculcating values.(250 phrases)

Ethics by Lexicon publications


Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of the syllabus. It is about discussing the position performed by reformers and administrators who have set themselves in the society as position models by upholding true ethos and values in the society.

Key demand of the query:

The reply should talk about the contributions made by reformers and administrators within the society to the society and how their values stand tall as position mannequin to others and encourage others in taking them forward.

Structure of the answer:


In a number of introductory strains recommend importance of such reformers and administrators to the great and well-being of the society.


The reply is direct in strategy, one has to spotlight the importance of reformers and good directors, position played by the them within the society.

Talk about in detail what makes them totally different; their values, ethical and ethics and how they play an important position in the society.

Quote examples of well-known administrators and reformers from the history to the modern occasions, spotlight their contributions and substantiate your answer.


Conclude with importance of such contributors to the society.


Values may be outlined as those issues which might be thought-about ‘necessary‘by a person, society or a corporation. Examples embrace courage, honesty, freedom, innovation and so on. History of India and the world has shown us many reformers and administrators who’re position fashions for the society and their lives are repository of values which information us in the moral path.


Right here, you’ll be able to divide the reply underneath heads and give your personal examples and options to it. Few egs are added right here


Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Periyar E.V Ramaswamy Naicker, Martin Luther King Jr., Kailash Sathyarthi, Wilson Bezawada and so on.

The values that their lives train us embrace courage, goal-oriented, inclusiveness, altruism, compassion, secularism, self-determination, social equality, equality of the human race, ladies empowerment, scientific considering and so on.

You can even add how they’ve influenced or inspired your life.


  1. Sreedharan, VP Menon, M S Swaminathan, Verghese Kurien, Palme Armstrong, Sathish Dhawan,

Values: punctuality, self-belief, integrity, high-quality standards, dreaming huge, entrepreneurship, policy making, innovation, honesty, people-first,

Matter:  case research based mostly on ethics.

7) Point out two unethical practices in society immediately and recommend a sustainable answer to each.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why this query:

The query is to convey out the unethical practices within the society which are prevalent even at this time.

Key demand of the query:

The reply should deliver out two particular examples from everyday life highlighting the presence of unethical practices and then recommend options to overcome such conditions.

Structure of the answer:


In a couple of introductory strains state what are ethical and unethical practices. How do they impression a society.


The answer to such questions could be put across in many ways, college students should quote two unethical practices prevalent or generally seen in in the present day’s societies – it will probably differ from corruption scandals, nepotism, bribery, corruption in drugs, fraudulent insurance policies and so forth.

Additionally, one should recommend options to overcome such unethical practices.


Conclude with method ahead.



Unethical practices are those which are opposite to our own ethical rules as well as the rules admired locally one lives in. It’s an action that falls outdoors of what is thought-about morally proper or proper for a person, a career or an business. Individuals can behave unethically, as can companies, professionals and politicians.


Moral rules similar to equity, honesty, dignity, and concern for particular person rights are of profound importance.

Right here, you’ll be able to divide the reply beneath heads and give your personal examples and solutions to it. Few egs are added here

Unethical practices among Individuals:

Treating female and male baby in a different way. Follow of untouchability, female genital mutilation and so forth.

Unethical practices among Businesses:

The case of Volkswagen hiding the emission check results. 

Unethical practices by Professionals:

Doping by athletes to improve efficiency.

Unethical practices among Politicians and the Authorities:

Snooping on individuals telephone calls.


To be unethical in one’s conduct and practices signifies that one is betraying one’s internal character and ultimately experiencing a diminished faith in oneself. Schooling and Sensitization of the ethical values will assist people to avoid the unethical practices.