CURRENT AFFAIRS PIB tech

Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 30 July 2019

Print Friendly, PDF & Email


Insights Day by day Current Affairs + PIB: 30 July 2019


Related articles from PIB:

GS Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Statutory bodies.

 

Central Wakf Council

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Aims, composition, features and significance of the Central Wakf Council.

 

Context: A nationwide conference of Central Waqf Council (CWC) was lately held.

 

What’s it?

  1. Central Wakf Council is a statutory body established in 1964 by the Authorities of India beneath Wakf Act, 1954 (now a sub part the Wakf Act, 1995).
  2. It has been established for the aim of advising Centre on issues pertaining to working of the State Wakf Boards and correct administration of the Wakfs within the nation.
  3. It is a permanent dedication of movable or immovable properties for spiritual, pious or charitable functions as acknowledged by Muslim Regulation, given by philanthropists.

 

Composition and appointments:

The Council is headed by a Chairperson, who’s the Union Minister in command of Wakfs and there are maximum 20 other members, appointed by Government of India as stipulated in the Wakf Act.


 

Relevant articles from numerous news sources:

GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. Features and duties of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and funds up to native ranges and challenges therein.

 

Renaming of states

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Procedure to vary the identify of states in India.

 

Context: Through the years, a number of demands have been made, for causes that might be both political or administrative, to vary the identify of West Bengal.

  • A request in 2018 was rejected by the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) in November 2018 because of the similarity between “Bangla” and “Bangladesh”.

 

Rationale behind renaming:

The state government first proposed the renaming in 2016. West Bengal argues for the change saying bureaucrats and politicians from the state typically complain that they’re requested to speak on the finish of each national-level assembly in Delhi. This was as a result of the audio system’ lists at such meeting are ready in response to alphabetical order of the states they characterize. If West Bengal gets the brand new identify, it’ll leapfrog from backside of the listing to the highest of the pecking order.

The renaming will help the state appear on the fourth spot after Arunachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Assam within the alphabetic order of the states.

 

The process of renaming of the state could be initiated by either the Parliament or the State Legislator and the procedure is as follows:

  1. The renaming of a state requires Parliamentary approval underneath Article three and four of the Constitution.
  2. A bill for renaming a state could also be launched in the Parliament on the recommendation of the President.
  3. Earlier than the introduction of the invoice, the President shall ship the invoice to the respective state meeting for expressing their views inside a stipulated time. The views of the state assembly usually are not binding, neither on the President nor on the Parliament.
  4. On the expiry of the interval, the bill will probably be despatched to the Parliament for deliberation. The invoice with a purpose to take the drive of a regulation have to be passed by a easy majority.
  5. The bill is shipped for approval to the President. After the approval of the stated invoice, the bill turns into a regulation and the identify of the state stands modified.

 

Initiation by a State:

If any recent proposal comes from states to the Residence Ministry, it’s going to put together a notice for the Union Cupboard for an modification to the Schedule 1 of the Structure. Thereafter, a Structure Amendment Invoice can be introduced in Parliament, which has to approve it with a easy majority, before the President provides his assent to it.

 

Sources: the hindu.


GS Paper three:

Subjects coated:

  1. Catastrophe and disaster management.

 

INTERNATIONAL CHARTER SPACE AND MAJOR DISASTERS

 

What to review?

For prelims and mains: key features, need for and significance of the constitution.

 

Context: India, by virtue of being a member of the International Constitution ‘Area and Major Disasters’ has acquired a satellite knowledge related to the Assam floods from different member nations including France, Russia and China.

 

About Worldwide Charter ‘Area and Main Disasters’:

  1. It’s a non-binding constitution.
  2. It offers for the charitable and humanitarian related acquisition of and transmission of area satellite knowledge to aid organizations in the event of main disasters.
  3. Initiated by the European Area Agency and the French area agency CNESafter the UNISPACE III conference held in Vienna, Austria in July 1999.
  4. It formally got here into operation on November 1, 2000 after the Canadian Area Agency signed onto the charter on October 20, 2000.
  5. Only businesses that possess and are capable of provide satellite-based Earth Remark knowledge could be members of the International Constitution. The members cooperate on a voluntary foundation.

 

How it works?

  1. The Constitution is a worldwide collaboration, via which satellite tv for pc knowledge are made obtainable for the good thing about catastrophe management. By combining Earth statement belongings from totally different area businesses, the Charter allows assets and experience to be coordinated for speedy response to major catastrophe situations; thereby serving to civil protection authorities and the international humanitarian group.
  2. This distinctive initiative is ready to mobilise businesses all over the world and profit from their know-how and their satellites by means of a single access level that operates 24 hours a day, 7 days every week and for free of charge to the consumer.

Need:

Faced with a serious emergency, rescue and aid organisations which might be armed shortly with reliable and correct info are better outfitted to save lots of lives and limit injury to property, infrastructure and the surroundings.

Satellites routinely monitoring Earth from area and delivering knowledge to help speedy injury mapping supply an objective device to assist disaster management.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper 3:

Subjects Coated:

  1. IPR associated points.

 

GI Certification

 

What to review?

For Prelims: GI tags and about Rasagulla and controversy surrounding it’s origin.

For Mains: Significance of GI tags.

 

Context: Odisha has bagged the geographical indication (GI) tag for its local model of “Rasagola”. 

This GI tag, numbered 612, is the second for Odisha. It received its first GI tag for Kandhamal Haldi.

 

Background:

This tag comes amid a years-long debate between West Bengal and Odisha over the place the candy had originated.

West Bengal and Odisha had staked their claim on GI tag for Rasagola. In 2017, West Bengal secured the GI tag for its “Banglar Rasogolla”.

Bengalis claim that the Rasgulla was invented in the 19th century by Nobin Chandra Das at his Bagbazar residence in Kolkata, whereas Odias consider that the custom of Niladri Bije where Rasgulla is obtainable began within the 12th century.

Now with Odisha also securing a certificates for the same but somewhat in a different way named delicacy, it seems both shall be relishing the sweet end.

 

About GI tag:

What’s it?

A GI is primarily an agricultural, natural or a manufactured product (handicrafts and industrial items) originating from a particular geographical territory.

Significance of a GI tag:

Sometimes, such a name conveys an assurance of high quality and distinctiveness, which is actually attributable to the place of its origin.

Security:

Once the GI protection is granted, no different producer can misuse the identify to market comparable merchandise. It additionally offers comfort to clients concerning the authenticity of that product.

Provisions on this regard: GI is covered as aspect of mental property rights (IPRs) beneath Paris Conference for Protection of Industrial Property.

At international degree, GI is ruled by WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Associated Points of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). In India, Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection Act), 1999 governs it.

 

Sources: the hindu.


GS Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. India and its neighbourhood- relations.
  2. Bilateral, regional and international groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

 

Regional Complete Economic Partnership (RCEP)

 

What to review?

For prelims: RCEP- Key details and Geographical location of member nations.

For mains: Why is India concerned, positive factors and losses from this, what India needs to do?

 

Context: The 16-nation group led by ASEAN nations is making a push for India to sign the Regional Comprehensive Financial Partnership (RCEP) Free Commerce Agreement.

 

What it is advisable find out about RCEP?

  1. RCEP is proposed between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) and the six states with which ASEAN has present FTAs (Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).
  2. RCEP negotiations have been formally launched in November 2012 on the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia.
  3. Purpose: RCEP goals to spice up items trade by eliminating most tariff and non-tariff limitations — a move that’s expected to offer the area’s shoppers larger selection of quality merchandise at reasonably priced charges. It also seeks to liberalise investment norms and cast off providers commerce restrictions.

 

Why has it assumed so much significance in current occasions?

When inked, it will turn out to be the world’s largest free trade pact. It’s because the 16 nations account for a total GDP of about $50 trillion and home close to three.5 billion individuals. India (GDP-PPP value $9.5 trillion and inhabitants of 1.3 billion) and China (GDP-PPP of $23.2 trillion and population of 1.four billion) together comprise the RCEP’s largest element when it comes to market measurement.

 

Why is India involved?

Higher access to Chinese language items might have impression on the Indian manufacturing sector. India has obtained large trade deficit with China. Beneath these circumstances, India proposed differential market entry technique for China.

There are demands by other RCEP nations for decreasing customs duties on numerous merchandise and larger entry to the market than India has been prepared to offer.

 

Why India shouldn’t miss RCEP?

If India is out of the RCEP, it will make its exports worth uncompetitive with different RCEP members’ exports in each RCEP market, and the following export-losses contributing to overseas change shortages and the next extent of depreciation of the rupee can only be left to imagination. A number of the sectors which were identified as potential sources of India’s export progress impulses underneath RCEP to the tune of roughly $200 billion.

There are extra compelling trade and financial causes for RCEP to turn out to be India-led in future, than otherwise. India would get larger market access in other nations not solely when it comes to goods, but in providers and investments also.

 

Sources: the hindu.

 

Mains Query: India shouldn’t permit the RCEP trade deal to fail. Do you agree. Remark.


Subjects Coated:

  1. Government insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 

Dam Security Invoice 2019

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Highlights of the Bill and key features of the National Dam Safety Authority, considerations expressed by states over the Invoice.

 

Context: Opposition MPs in the Lok Sabha have expressed deep reservations concerning the Centre’s choice to introduce the Dam Safety Invoice, 2019, asserting that the legislation, which is ostensibly aimed toward providing uniform security measures throughout the country, would undermine the powers of State governments since water is a State subject.

 

Considerations raised:

  1. The invoice is just too targeted on structural safety and never on operational security.
  2. There’s inadequate compensation to the individuals affected by dams.
  3. There’s need for an unbiased regulator as well as for a exact definition of stakeholders.
  4. Many states say it encroaches upon the sovereignty of States to handle their dams, and violates the rules of federalism enshrined within the Constitution. They see it as an try by the Centre to consolidate power in the guise of safety considerations.

 

Why Centre is introducing this Bill?

Although the topic does not fall underneath the purview of Parliament, the Centre has determined to introduce this invoice primarily because dam safety is a matter of concern in the country. And there are not any legal and institutional safeguards in this regard.

 

Highlights of Dam Safety Bill, 2019:

  1. The Invoice offers for proper surveillance, inspection, operation and upkeep of all specified dams within the nation to ensure their protected functioning.
  2. The Invoice supplies for structure of a Nationwide Committee on Dam Safety which shall evolve dam security insurance policies and advocate crucial laws as may be required for the aim.
  3. The Invoice offers for institution of National Dam Safety Authorityas a regulatory physique which shall discharge features to implement the coverage, tips and standards for dam security in the nation.
  4. The Invoice supplies for structure of a State Committee on Dam Safety by State Authorities.

 

Significance:

  • The Invoice will help all the States and Union Territories of India to undertake uniform dam security procedures which shall guarantee safety of dams and safeguard benefits from such dams. This shall also assist in safeguarding human life, livestock and property.
  • It addresses all issues regarding dam safety together with regular inspection of dams, Emergency Action Plan, complete dam security evaluate, enough repair and maintenance funds for dam security, Instrumentation and Security Manuals. It lays onus of dam security on the dam owner and supplies for penal provisions for commission and omission of certain acts.

 

Need:

  1. During the last fifty years, India has invested substantially in dams and related infrastructures, and ranks third after USA and China within the variety of giant dams. 5254 giant dams are in operation within the nation presently and another 447 are beneath development. Along with this, there are literally thousands of medium and small dams.
  2. Whereas dams have played a key position in fostering speedy and sustained agricultural progress and improvement in India, there has been an extended felt need for a uniform regulation and administrative construction for making certain dam security.
  3. The Central Water Commission, by means of the National Committee on Dam Security (NCDS), Central Dam Security Organization (CDSO) and State Dam Safety Organizations (SDSO) has been making fixed endeavours in this path, however these organizations would not have any statutory powers and are only advisory in nature.
  4. This could be a matter of concern, particularly since about 75 % of the massive dams in India are greater than 25 years previous and about 164 dams are more than 100 years previous. A badly maintained, unsafe dam could be a hazard to human life, wildlife, private and non-private belongings and the setting.
  5. India has had 36 dam failures prior to now.

 

Sources: the hindu.


 

Information for Prelims:

 

What are Microdots?

Why in Information? The Ministry of Street Transport & Highways has issued a draft notification amending Central Motor Car Guidelines, allowing motor automobiles and their elements, elements, assemblies, sub-assemblies to be affixed with everlasting and almost invisible microdots.

What are microdots?

Microdot know-how includes spraying the physique and elements of the car or another machine with microscopic dots, which give a singular identification.

These microdot could be read physically with a microscope and identified with ultra violet mild source.

The microdots and adhesive will turn into everlasting fixtures/affixation which cannot be removed with out damaging the asset, that’s the car itself.

Benefits: Use of this know-how will assist examine theft of automobiles and in addition use of faux spare elements.   

 

Automated multimodal biometric identification system (AMBIS):

Context: Maharashtra has turn out to be the primary state in the nation to undertake automated multimodal biometric identification system (AMBIS) About AMBIS: It aims to create a felony database by addition of iris and face biometrics. Underneath this technique, a digital database of fingerprints and pictures of criminals can be ready, that may result in a subsequent hike in conviction price.

 

Muthulakshmi Reddi:

Context: Google has created a doodle on Muthulakshmi Reddi’s 33rd start anniversary.

Who’s she? Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddi was India’s first legislator and also called lady of many firsts.

Tamil Nadu Government declared that yearly hospitals will have fun her delivery anniversary as ‘Hospital Day.’

She turned the first feminine surgeon in a government hospital and the primary lady legislator in the nation during British India.


 

Summaries of essential Editorials:

 

Ban or regulate? — On India’s policy on cryptocurrencies:

Context: An inter-ministerial committee just lately advisable that India ought to ban all personal cryptocurrencies.

The Reserve Financial institution of India has also repeatedly warned the public of the risks related to coping with cryptocurrencies. 

 

Why the committee has beneficial for an entire ban?

Governments and financial regulators the world over are cautious of personal cryptocurrencies. These Cryptocurrencies want neither a central issuing authority nor a central validating company for transactions.

These currencies can exist and thrive outdoors the realm of authority and regulation.

They’re even deemed a menace to the official foreign money and monetary system.

 

Is banning cryptocurrencies the simplest method to respond?

Seven jurisdictions, that the report cites, have not banned cryptocurrencies outright. Lots of them, together with Canada, Thailand, Russia and Japan, appear to be shifting on the path of regulation, in order that transactions are inside the purview of anti-money laundering and prevention of terror legal guidelines.

Even in China, which India has taken a cue from, the ban has not achieved its aims. Trading in China is now low however not non-existent.

Subsequently, there are not any official or other knowledge obtainable that point in the direction of misuse of cryptocurrencies for illegal ends.

 

What’s a cryptocurrency and how they function?

A cryptocurrency is a digital or digital foreign money that uses cryptography for safety. Cryptocurrencies use decentralized know-how to let users make safe funds and store money without the necessity to use their identify or undergo a bank. They run on a distributed public ledger referred to as blockchain, which is a document of all transactions up to date and held by foreign money holders. The most typical cryptocurrencies are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, and Litecoin.

 

Considerations associated with using cryptocurrencies:

  1. The federal government is wary that regulation will provide legitimacy to “what’s presently ambiguous,” and should lead to additional rise in its valuation and end up contributing “to the investment bubble”.
  2. A foreign money that isn’t based mostly on any actual economic activity, in contrast to a sovereign foreign money whose value is predicated on the relative worth of a tradeable basket of products and providers, can’t prima facie inspire a lot consolation.
  3. The security provided by encryption of cryptocurrency could also be breached by hackers who are all the time lurking for any point of weak spot. This may increasingly end up costing buyers large quantities of cash because prices are hooked up to the currencies.
  4. Cryptocurrency exists only in essence such that there are not any physical cash and notes. Consequently, there’s, subsequently, no central place the place the foreign money could be deposited for protected retaining.
  5. Cryptos are feared not just for their sheer speculative propensities, but in addition for their capability to undermine sovereign currencies.
  6. Digital foreign money is being traded anonymously over the Internet and used for a number of anti-national and unlawful actions, from terror funding to illicit trade of arms and medicines and so forth.
  7. The web use of this foreign money, was without any border restrictions or geographical constraints, resulting in danger to the integrity and sovereignty of the nation.

 

Benefits of cryptocurrencies:

Secure nature: Cryptocurrencies are encoded into a database.

No transaction fees are often charged for transactions involving cryptocurrency.

Cryptocurrency does away with the necessity for a regulator.

By making every part public, cryptocurrency negates the necessity for a intermediary.

No particular person or organisation can manipulate Bitcoins because it’s cryptographically secure and do not include clients’ private info.

 

What could be accomplished?

  1. If authorised as an digital cost system or designated a authorized instrument, cryptocurrencies will fall beneath the purview of the RBI; capital good points and business transactions will probably be liable to tax, and overseas funds are also going to fall underneath the auspices of Overseas Change Administration Act.
  2. Regulated cryptocurrencies will enshrine strong shopper safety provisions. When it comes to benefits, this might be a pressure multiplier in India’s quest for financial inclusion, parallel to the digital cost modalities such a digital wallets and Aadhaar Enabled Cost System.
  3. It might additional scale back the price associated with remittances, which brings annual earnings of near 62 billion USD to India.
  4. It might additionally appeal to future enterprise entrepreneurs, leading to innovation, era of job and wealth creation within the due means of payments processing, e-commerce and taxation.