CURRENT AFFAIRS PIB tech

Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 28 January 2019

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Insights Every day Present Affairs + PIB: 28 January 2019


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Statutory, regulatory and numerous quasi-judicial our bodies.

 

Niti Aayog 2.zero

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Niti Aayog- goals, composition and features.
  • For Mains: Want for reforms and challenges related.

 

Context: In a paper titled ‘In the direction of India’s New Fiscal Federalism’, former Finance Fee chairman Vijay Kelkar has pitched for establishing of a ‘new Niti Aayog’ and giving it duty for allocating capital and income grants to the states.

 

Want for establishing of ‘Niti Aayog 2.zero’:

Changing the Planning Fee, which was selling regionally balanced progress in India, by the Niti Aayog, a assume tank, has decreased the federal government’s coverage attain. Subsequently, the necessity has arisen for an establishment to do the job at hand associated to the structural points together with removing of regional imbalances within the financial system.

 

Few ideas associated to composition and features of the revamped Niti Aayog:

  • It is going to be liable for allocating improvement or transformational capital or income grants to the states.
  • So as to make the brand new Niti Aayog simpler, it’s important to make sure that the establishment is on the ‘Excessive Desk’ of choice making of the federal government. This implies the vice-chairman of the brand new Niti Aayog will must be a everlasting invitee of the Cupboard Committee on Financial Affairs (CCEA).
  • It needn’t be concerned with the approval of the state’s annual expenditure programmes. It ought to somewhat attempt to be a think-tank with ‘praxis’ possessing appreciable monetary muscle and dedicate its energies to stipulate coherent medium and long run technique and corresponding funding assets for reworking India.
  • New Niti Aayog will yearly want the assets of round 1.5 to 2% of the GDP to offer appropriate grants to the states for mitigating the event imbalances.

 

Different arguments supporting the revamp of Niti Aayog:

  • NITI Aayog can’t rework a deeply unequal society into a contemporary financial system that ensures the welfare of all its residents, regardless of their social id.
  • It has no position in influencing public or personal funding. It doesn’t appear to have affect in policymaking with long-term penalties. For example, demonetisation and the Items and Providers Tax.
  • NITI Aayog is meant to be a assume tank. This suggests that whereas producing new concepts, it maintains a good mental distance from the federal government of the day. As an alternative, we see uncritical reward of the Govt-sponsored schemes / programmes.

Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: ‘Niti Ayog’ is the lacking pillar of India’s good governance. Do you agree? Touch upon the potential enhancements in India’s Good governance


Paper 2 and three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.
  2. Inclusive progress and points arising from it.
  3. Authorities Budgeting.

 

Enter Credit score beneath GST:

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: What’s ITC- which means, want, significance and considerations over its misuse.

 

Why in Information? Involved over a decline in GST revenues, tax officers are more likely to look at the excessive utilization of enter tax credit score (ITC) to set off tax legal responsibility by companies.

 

What’s Enter Tax Credit score (ITC)?

It’s the tax that a enterprise pays on a purchase order and that it might use to scale back its tax legal responsibility when it makes a sale. In different phrases, companies can scale back their tax legal responsibility by claiming credit score to the extent of GST paid on purchases.

A enterprise beneath composition scheme can’t avail of enter tax credit score. ITC can’t be claimed for private use or for items which might be exempt.

 

Significance of ITC:

One of many constructive options of GST is that it helps to keep away from the undesirable value cascading impact (or tax on tax) that existed beforehand. Now, within the case of GST, there’s the mechanism of Enter Tax Credit score (ITC) which helps to get rid of the fee cascading impact of the pre-GST tax regime. Beneath GST, there’s not value cascading impact due to two information. First, a lot of the taxes are merged beneath a single tax, and second, the enter tax credit score.

 

Considerations over its misuse:

  • There might be risk of misuse of the supply by unscrupulous companies by producing pretend invoices simply to say tax credit score.
  • As a lot as 80% of the whole GST legal responsibility is being settled by ITC and solely 20% is deposited as money.
  • Underneath the current dispensation, there isn’t a provision for actual time matching of ITC claims with the taxes already paid by suppliers of inputs.
  • The matching is completed on the idea of system generated GSTR-2A, after the credit score has been claimed. Based mostly on the mismatch highlighted by GSTR-2A and ITC claims, the income division sends notices to companies.
  • Presently there’s a time hole between ITC declare and matching them with the taxes paid by suppliers. Therefore there’s a risk of ITC being claimed on the idea of faux invoices.

 

Want of the hour- actual time updates:

To fill the hole, a brand new return submitting system has been proposed. As soon as it turns into operational, it will turn out to be potential for the division to match the ITC claims and taxes paid on an actual time foundation. The income division would then analyse the massive variety of ITC claims to seek out out if they’re real or based mostly on pretend invoices and take corrective motion.

 

Supply: the hindu.

Mains Query: Assess the efficiency of GST regime thus far and talk about challenges going ahead?


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Points associated to well being.

 

Zearalenone in cereals:

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Zearalenone- what’s it? results on well being and measures wanted to restrict its utilization.

 

What’s it?

Zearalenone is a fungal toxin infesting cereals similar to wheat, maize and barley. It assaults crops whereas they’re rising, however may also develop when cereals are saved with out being dried absolutely.

 

Why in Information?

Whereas quite a few research doc this toxin in cereals the world over, no knowledge existed for India till now. This month, a Journal of Meals Science research detected zearalenone in wheat, rice, corn and oats from markets in Uttar Pradesh.

 

Are there any tips on its utilization?

The Meals Security and Requirements Authority of India doesn’t impose most limits for zearalenone, although the European Union (EU) does.

 

Why fear about this?

Fungal toxins are generally present in meals, and is usually a public well being concern. India regulates the degrees of a few of these, together with aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, ergot and patulin. The primary three infest cereals, whereas patulin is present in apples. Every of those toxins has been related to illness outbreaks.

For instance, in 1974, a hepatitis outbreak in Rajasthan and Gujarat, which made 398 individuals sick and killed 106, was linked to aflatoxin in maize. In the meantime, persistent aflatoxin consumption has been proven to trigger liver most cancers.

Given this, the Worldwide Company for Analysis on Most cancers (IARC) classifies aflatoxin as a Group 1 carcinogen, which means there’s sufficient proof for its carcinogenicity.

In zearalenone’s case, there isn’t a robust proof of toxicity in people thus far, although a number of analysis teams are investigating. Consequently, the IARC classifies it as a Group three carcinogen, which suggests proof just isn’t adequate for an analysis but.

 

How Zearalenone impacts?

Zearalenone behaves like oestrogen, the feminine intercourse hormone, and will trigger endocrine disturbances in people. Its nasty results in animals, resembling pigs, are documented. When fed with mouldy corn, pigs develop infected vaginas, infertility and different signs. For this reason nations like Brazil regulate zearalenone ranges in animal feed. In people, the info are fuzzier.

 

What subsequent?

Extra knowledge are wanted from cereals in different States, and from different storage circumstances, earlier than India decides to set limits. Since zearalenone favours cool climates, such contamination might be restricted to some States. Additionally, robust epidemiological knowledge linking human zearalenone ranges with illnesses similar to breast most cancers are necessary. The newest findings are a superb start line, since nothing was recognized concerning the chemical in India up to now. It’s time to construct upon it.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Points associated to well being.
  2. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes.

 

World Malaria Report of 2018

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Highlights of the report, efforts by India to regulate the unfold of the illness and DAMaN initiative.

 

Context: As per World Well being Organisation’s World Malaria Report of 2018, India is the one nation among the many 11 highest-burden nations that noticed substantial progress in decreasing illness burden: it noticed a 24% lower in 2017 in comparison with 2016.

 

Significance:

This exhibits that India has assumed a management position in advancing international efforts to finish malaria. The nation’s success supplies hope to the opposite highest-burden nations to deal with malaria head-on.

 

India’s efforts on this regard:

  • India’s progress in preventing malaria is an end result of concerted efforts to make sure that its malaria programme is country-owned and country-led, whilst it’s in alignment with globally accepted methods.
  • On the East Asia Summit in 2015, India pledged to get rid of the illness by 2030. Following this public declaration, India launched the five-year Nationwide Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination. This marked a shift in focus from malaria “management” to “elimination”. The plan supplies a roadmap to realize the goal of ending malaria in 571 districts out of India’s 678 districts by 2022.

 

Approach forward:

The plan requires greater than ₹10,000 crore. Sufficient funding mixed with coordinated motion between governments, civil society and philanthropic donors is crucial to realize this objective. Since well being is a State topic, State governments throughout the nation shoulder a particular duty in tackling the illness.

 

Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) initiative:

Amongst states, Odisha’s Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) initiative is critical.

The initiative goals to ship providers to probably the most inaccessible and hardest hit individuals of the State. The initiative has in-built revolutionary methods to fight asymptomatic malaria.

The programme is collectively carried out by Indian Council of Medical Analysis-Nationwide Institute of Malaria Analysis (ICMR-NIMR), Nationwide Vector Borne Illness Management Programme (NVBDCP), Odisha and Medicines for Malaria Enterprise (MMV).

 

Sources: the hindu.

 

Mains Query: The World Malaria Report 2018 of the World Well being Organisation notes that India’s report presents nice promise within the quest to chop the variety of new instances and deaths globally. Critically Analyze.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Points referring to improvement and administration of Social Sector/Providers referring to Well being, Schooling, Human Assets, points referring to poverty and starvation.
  2. Residents charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and different measures.

 

Constitution of Sufferers’ Rights

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Highlights of the draft and the necessity for Constitution of Sufferers’ Rights.

 

Context: The Jan Swasthya Abhiyan (JSA), a nationwide platform engaged on well being and healthcare providers, urged the Ministry of Well being to right away implement the Constitution of Sufferers’ Rights and make sure the inclusion of all the vary of sufferers’ rights with none dilution.

 

Background:

In August 2018, the Ministry of Well being and Household Welfare introduced its plans to implement this Constitution, which was positioned within the public area for inviting feedback as much as 30th September, 2018. Though almost four months have elapsed since this declaration of intent, there appears to have been no additional progress on finalisation and adoption of the constitution.

 

Want of Constitution of Sufferers’ Rights:

  1. Proper to non-discrimination is a vital proper. Each affected person has the suitable to obtain remedy with none discrimination based mostly on his or her sicknesses or circumstances, together with HIV standing or different well being situation, faith, caste, ethnicity or sexual orientation.
  2. The constitution assumes significance as India doesn’t have a devoted regulator like different nations. Present laws within the curiosity of sufferers and governing healthcare supply methods are nonetheless on the anvil.

 

The draft Constitution of Sufferers’ Rights:

It has been ready by the Nationwide Human Rights Fee (NHRC).

  • The draft constitution consists of 17 rights with description, impressed by worldwide charters and guided by nationwide degree provisions, with the target of consolidating these right into a single doc.
  • The proposed Constitution attracts upon all the prevailing related provisions, thereby making them publicly recognized in a coherent method.

 

The constitution additionally prescribes sure duties that the affected person should adhere to. These embrace:

  • Offering all required info to their physician, with out concealing related details, in order to make sure an accurate analysis and remedy.
  • Sufferers are additionally anticipated to comply with all directions relating to appointment time, co-operate with hospital employees and fellow sufferers, keep away from creating disturbance to different sufferers, and keep cleanliness within the hospital.
  • Sufferers ought to respect the dignity of the physician and different hospital employees. Regardless of the grievance could also be, affected person or caregivers shouldn’t resort to violence in any type.
  • The sufferers also needs to take duty for his or her actions based mostly on decisions made relating to remedy choices and in case they refuse remedy.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes.

 

Jiban Sampark Challenge of Odisha

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Highlights and significance of the scheme, about PVTGs.

 

Context: Odisha has launched Jiban Sampark venture for the welfare of the Notably Weak Tribal Teams.

 

Key options:

  • The Challenge is being undertaken in affiliation with UNICEF.
  • It goals to generate consciousness amongst Notably Weak Tribal Teams (PVTG) in Odisha on numerous improvement and welfare initiatives of State Authorities, particularly on ladies and baby welfare.
  • The main target areas of the Challenge are talent improvement, empowering communities, cooperation and innovation among the many teams.

 

About ‘Notably Weak Tribal Teams (PVTGs)’:

PVTGs are extra weak among the many tribal teams. In 1975, the Authorities of India initiated to determine probably the most weak tribal teams as a separate class referred to as PVTGs and declared 52 such teams, whereas in 1993 a further 23 teams have been added to the class, making it a complete of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, unfold over 17 states and one Union Territory(UT), within the nation (2011 census).

Among the many 75 listed PVTG’s the very best quantity are present in Odisha (13), adopted by Andhra Pradesh (12).

 

Sources: the hindu.

 

Mains Query: Who’re the Notably Weak Tribal Teams (PVTG) in India? Look at why they’re categorised as such and talk about their traits and social circumstances.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Points referring to improvement and administration of Social Sector/Providers referring to Well being, Schooling, Human Assets, points referring to poverty and starvation.
  2. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes; mechanisms, legal guidelines, establishments and our bodies constituted for the safety and betterment of those weak sections.

 

Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS)

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: About Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS)- aims, features and significance.

 

Context: The federal government has unveiled new tips for Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS) aligning them to the Nationwide Expertise Qualification Framework with an purpose to offering standardised coaching throughout sectors.

 

New tips:

  • Alignment of JSS course and curriculum with Nationwide Talent Qualification Framework (NSQF) to standardize coaching.
  • Decentralization of powers for JSSs by offering accountability and independence to district administration.
  • To determine and promote conventional expertise within the district by means of skilling / upskilling.
  • Proof-based evaluation system.
  • Straightforward On-line certification.
  • Linking JSS to Public Finance Administration system to take care of transparency and accountability of the ecosystem.
  • Creating livelihood linkages.
  • Coaching of Trainers to develop the capability by means of Nationwide Expertise Coaching Institutes.

 

About Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS):

Previously beneath the Ministry of Human Assets Improvement, Jan Shikshan Sansthan was transferred to the Ministry of Talent Improvement & Entrepreneurship in 2018.

Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS) have been established to offer vocational coaching to non-literate, neo-literate, in addition to faculty dropouts by figuring out expertise as would have a market within the area of their institution.

 

Sources: pib.

 

Mains Query: Talk about the lately launched tips to re-energize and reinvigorate the Jan Shikshan Sansthans. 


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. India and neighbourhood relations.

 

Indus Waters Treaty

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Indus Water Treaty- key information.
  • For Mains: Points related to the implementation of the treaty and their decision.

 

Context: Pak delegation has arrived in Delhi for Chenab underneath Indus Waters Treaty challenge inspection.

 

Want:

This tour is an obligation imposed on each the nations by the Indus Waters Treaty 1960 between India and Pakistan. Beneath the treaty, each the commissioners are mandated to examine websites and works on each the edges of Indus basin in a block of 5 years.

 

Is it the primary time?

No. Since signing of the treaty, a complete of 118 such excursions on each the edges have been undertaken by the fee.

 

Indus Water treaty:

  1. Signed in 1960 by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru after which Pakistan President Ayub Khan, the treaty allocates 80% of water from the six-river Indus water system to Pakistan.
  2. Underneath the treaty, management over six north Indian rivers have been divided between the 2 nations. India obtained management over the rivers Beas, Ravi and Sutlej whereas Pakistan acquired management over Indus, Chenab and Jhelum.
  3. This can be a distinctive treaty involving a 3rd social gathering. It was brokered by the World Financial institution.
  4. A Everlasting Indus Fee was arrange as a bilateral fee to implement and handle the Treaty. The Fee solves disputes arising over water sharing.
  5. The Treaty additionally supplies arbitration mechanism to unravel disputes amicably.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Information for Prelims:

 

Establishments in Information- SFIO:

About Critical Fraud Investigation Workplace (SFIO):

  • SFIO comes underneath the Ministry of Company Affairs (MCA).
  • It’s a multi-disciplinary organisation that investigates and guides prosecution in white-collar fraud requiring experience in forensic auditing, company regulation, info know-how, capital markets, taxation, and different allied fields.
  • It was established in 2003, based mostly on suggestions by the Naresh Chandra Committee on Company Audit and Governance.
  • It acquired statutory powers beneath the Corporations Act, 2013.
  • The principles giving it the facility to make arrests got here into impact in 2017.
  • Since its inception, the SFIO was understood to be a specialised organisation that may require a large spectrum of experience, and recruitment can be largely deputation-based, drawing on experience from numerous civil providers cadres, and on consultants with the required experience.
  • Instances are assigned to the SFIO based mostly on the size of monetary misappropriation or extent of public curiosity that’s at stake.

 

Sarus crane:

Context: Sarus crane, whose numbers pushed to the sting by habitat degradation and human callousness, now appears to be getting a brand new lease of life in Uttar Pradesh, the place it enjoys the standing of official State hen.

Rise in numbers: The inhabitants of the Sarus crane, a fowl distinguishable by its pink higher neck and white collar, has climbed to 15,938 as per the 2018 census (summer time). This can be a bounce of 5.2% from 2017, when there have been 15,138 Sarus cranes throughout U.P. Its inhabitants in Uttar Pradesh has steadily grown since 2013, as wetlands thrive and farmers, fisherfolk nurture their nests.

Key details:

  • The Sarus (Grus antigone) is the tallest flying chook on the planet.
  • Additionally it is India’s solely resident breeding crane.
  • IUCN status- ‘weak’.
  • It has three disjunct populations within the Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia and northern Australia.

Model Finance International 500, 2019:

Details related for Prelims: Model Finance International 500, 2019 report has positioned the ‘Tata’ model on the 86th place this yr. Final yr, it was positioned at 104th place.

Italian supercar producer, Ferrari, has claimed the title of the world’s strongest model based on the report.

Model Finance, the world’s main unbiased model valuation and technique consultancy, determines the relative power of manufacturers by way of a balanced scorecard of metrics evaluating advertising funding, stakeholder fairness, and enterprise efficiency.

 

Indian Railways’ quickest Practice 18 named Vande Bharat Categorical:

India’s first indigenously constructed engineless semi-high velocity practice, Practice 18, has been named Vande Bharat Categorical.

  • The practice is about to run between Delhi and Varanasi at a most velocity of 160 kmph.
  • Practice 18 is a flagship practice set; the primary prototype has been constructed by the Integral Coach Manufacturing unit, Chennai, in a report time of 20 months.
  • The practice is a 100% ‘Make in India’ undertaking and is claimed to be constructed at half the price of an analogous practice set that’s imported.
  • T-18 is a self-propelled engine-less practice (just like the Metro trains) and is energy-efficient as its coaches might be fitted with LED lights. Coaches could have automated doorways and retractable footsteps.
  • Will probably be inter-connected with absolutely sealed gangways together with a GPS-based Passenger Info System. It is supplied with of Bio bogs.

 

India’s Second Tulip Backyard to Come up in Uttarakhand:

Context: India’s second Tulip backyard will probably be arrange in Pithoragarh district at a price of Rs 50 crore. First one is situated in Srinagar of Jammu and Kashmir.

  • The Tulip Backyard can be developed by ONGC, beneath its company social duty programme in over 50 hectares of forest land close to Chandak hilltop.
  • The location was chosen beneath the 13 districts, 13 new locations’ scheme, to draw extra vacationers to the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand.

 

Atal Setu of Goa:

Context: “Atal Setu” on the Mandovi river in Goa has been inaugurated.

Options of the bridge: It’s 5.1-km lengthy cable-stayed bridge connecting state capital Panaji with north Goa. The bridge is constructed by the GIDC (Goa Infrastructure Improvement Company) in collaboration with development main Larsen and Toubro.

Mahadayi, also called the Mandovi river, is called a lifeline within the northern elements of Karnataka. The river originates and flows for 28 kilometer in Karnataka and goes via Maharashtra and Goa earlier than assembly the Arabian Sea.

 

Nari Shakti: Hindi Phrase of the Yr 2018:

Context: The phrase Nari Shakti is chosen because the phrase of the Yr 2018 by the Oxford dictionaries.

Why was Nari Shakti chosen?

  • Giant spike in using phrase Nari Shakti in March 2018 across the Authorities of India’s Nari Shakti Puraskar.
  • Supreme Courtroom additionally upheld Nari Shakti’s prominence in 2018 with its two necessary selections. One was a ban on ‘triple-talaq’ and second, the taking down of a rule that disallowed menstrual ladies entry to the Sabarimala temple in Kerala.

 

Pahari group:

Why in Information? Governor of Jammu and Kashmir has given his approval for the Kashmir Reservation (Modification) Invoice, 2014, offering reservation to the individuals belonging to Pahari group of the State. The laws is aimed toward offering job alternatives to the Pahari individuals residing in backward areas of the State.

About Pahari group:

  • Pahari is a linguistic group, comprising each Muslims and Hindus, and is especially situated in Poonch, Rajouri, Kupwara and Baramulla districts.
  • Due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of the areas of their residence, the Pahari group has traditionally confronted appreciable financial misery resulting in general socio-economic backwardness.

 

Satkosia Tiger Reserve:

Why in Information? Two educated elephants might be used to patrol Odisha’s Satkosia Tiger Reserve. The 2 elephants are being introduced from the Similipal Tiger Reserve. This step has been undertaken for resuming the formidable tiger reintroduction programme in Satkosia.

About Satkosia Tiger Reserve:

It was established in 1976 as a wildlife sanctuary. The world was declared as Satkosia Tiger Reserve in 2007. Satkosia is the assembly level of two bio-geographic areas of India; the Deccan Peninsula and the Japanese Ghats, contributing immense biodiversity.

 

Technical textiles:

Context: Ministry of Textiles will maintain Nationwide Conclave on Technical Textiles in Mumbai. The occasion may also be a curtain raiser for Techno Tex 2019.

What are technical textiles?

Technical Textiles are outlined as Textile materials and merchandise manufactured primarily for his or her Technical efficiency and useful properties relatively than aesthetic and ornamental traits.

Technical textiles embrace textiles for automotive purposes, medical textiles (e.g., implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop safety), and protecting clothes (e.g., warmth and radiation safety for hearth fighter clothes, molten metallic safety for welders, stab safety and bulletproof vests, and spacesuits).

Observe: Subjects on Insolvency and Chapter Code (IBC) and Local weather change to be declared as Worldwide Safety difficulty can be coated tomorrow.