CURRENT AFFAIRS PIB tech

Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 28 February 2019

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Insights Day by day Present Affairs + PIB: 28 February 2019


Related articles from PIB:

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Points referring to improvement and administration of Social Sector/Providers referring to Well being, Schooling, Human Assets.

 

Atal Innovation Mission (AIM)

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Options of Atal Innovation Mission, ATLs.
  • For Mains: Promotion of innovation at international degree and efforts by India on this regard.

 

Context: NITI Aayog’s Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and Adobe have signed a Assertion of Intent (SOI) to collectively drive the constitution of creating artistic expertise and spreading digital literacy throughout all Atal Tinkering Labs in India.

 

Key information:

  • As per MoU, Adobe shall be adopting 100 faculties underneath Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL) initiative.
  • Adobe shall be implementing its Digital Disha Program in ATLs, beneath which free licenses of Adobe Spark premium shall be provided to ATLs.
  • Launched in 2018, the Adobe Digital Disha Programme is aimed toward driving synergies in artistic considering and technology-based studying.

 

What are ATLs?

With a imaginative and prescient to ‘Domesticate one Million youngsters in India as Neoteric Innovators’, Atal Innovation Mission is establishing Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs) in faculties throughout India.

Goal: The target of this scheme is to foster curiosity, creativity and creativeness in younger minds; and inculcate expertise resembling design mindset, computational considering, adaptive studying, bodily computing and so on.

Monetary Help: AIM will present grant-in-aid that features a one-time institution value of Rs. 10 lakh and operational bills of Rs. 10 lakh for a most interval of 5 years to every ATL.

Eligibility: Faculties (minimal Grade VI – X) managed by Authorities, native physique or personal trusts/society can arrange ATL.

 

Significance of ATLs:

  • Atal Tinkering Labs have advanced as epicenters for imparting these ‘expertise of the longer term’ by means of sensible purposes based mostly onself-learning.
  • Bridging an important social divide, Atal Tinkering Labs present equal alternative to all youngsters throughout the spectrum by working on the grassroot degree, introducing youngsters to the world of innovation and tinkering.

 

Want for such labs:

Because the world grapples with evolving applied sciences, a brand new set of expertise have gained well-liked acceptance and have come to be in excessive demand. For India to contribute considerably throughout this age of raid technological development, there’s an pressing have to empower our youth with these ‘expertise of the longer term’.

Outfitted with trendy applied sciences to assist navigate and impart essential expertise within the age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the ATLs are on the vanguard of the marketing scientific mood and an entrepreneurial spirit in youngsters immediately.

 

About AIM:

  • The Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) is the Authorities of India’s flagship initiative to advertise a tradition of innovation and entrepreneurship within the nation.
  • AIM is remitted to create an umbrella construction to supervise innovation ecosystem of the nation and revolutionizing the innovation eco-system – touching upon the complete innovation life cycle via numerous packages.

 

The Atal Innovation Mission shall have two core features:

  1. Entrepreneurship promotion by means of Self-Employment and Expertise Utilization, whereby innovators can be supported and mentored to grow to be profitable entrepreneurs.
  2. Innovation promotion: to offer a platform the place revolutionary concepts are generated.

 

Mains Query: The ASER report highlights that there’s a want for innovation in schooling sector in India. Remark. 


Paper three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Infrastructure- power and conservation associated points.

 

Sustainable Various In the direction of Reasonably priced Transportation (SATAT) Initiative

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: SATAT initiative- key aims, significance and temporary overview on CNG and CBG.

 

Context: The federal government just lately handed over the 100th Letter of Intent (LOI) to the Compressed Bio-Fuel(CBG) Entrepreneur (producer) beneath the SATAT scheme.

 

Concerning the initiative:

  • The initiative is aimed toward offering a Sustainable Various In the direction of Reasonably priced Transportation (SATAT) as a developmental effort that might profit each vehicle-users in addition to farmers and entrepreneurs.
  • Compressed Bio-Fuel crops are proposed to be arrange primarily via unbiased entrepreneurs. CBG produced at these crops can be transported by means of cascades of cylinders to the gasoline station networks of OMCs for advertising as a inexperienced transport gasoline various.
  • The entrepreneurs would be capable of individually market the opposite by-products from these crops, together with bio-manure, carbon-dioxide, and so on., to reinforce returns on funding.
  • It’s deliberate to roll out 5,000 Compressed Bio-Fuel crops throughout India in a phased method.
  • This initiative is predicted to generate direct employment for 75,000 individuals and produce 50 million tonnes of bio-manure for crops.

 

There are a number of advantages from changing agricultural residue, cattle dung and municipal strong waste into CBG on a business scale:

  • Accountable waste administration, discount in carbon emissions and air pollution.
  • Further income supply for farmers.
  • Increase to entrepreneurship, rural financial system and employment.
  • Help to nationwide commitments in attaining local weather change objectives.
  • Discount in import of pure fuel and crude oil.
  • Buffer towards crude oil/fuel worth fluctuations.

 

Background:

Bio-gas is produced naturally by way of a means of anaerobic decomposition from waste / bio-mass sources like agriculture residue, cattle dung, sugarcane press mud, municipal strong waste, sewage remedy plant waste, and so on. After purification, it’s compressed and referred to as CBG, which has pure methane content material of over 95%.

 

What’s CBG?

Compressed Bio-Fuel is strictly just like the commercially obtainable pure fuel in its composition and power potential. With calorific worth (~52,000 KJ/kg) and different properties just like CNG, Compressed Bio-Fuel can be utilized in its place, renewable automotive gasoline. Given the abundance of biomass within the nation, Compressed Bio-Fuel has the potential to exchange CNG in automotive, industrial and business makes use of within the coming years.

Compressed Bio-Fuel might be produced from numerous bio-mass/waste sources, together with agricultural residue, municipal strong waste, sugarcane press mud, distillery spent wash, cattle dung and sewage remedy plant waste. The opposite waste streams, i.e, rotten potatoes from chilly storages, rotten greens, dairy crops, hen/poultry litter, meals waste, horticulture waste, forestry residues and handled natural waste from industrial effluent remedy crops (ETPs) can be utilized to generate biogas.

 

Method forward:

The potential for Compressed Bio-Fuel manufacturing from numerous sources in India is estimated at about 62 million tonnes every year. Going ahead, Compressed Bio-Fuel networks could be built-in with metropolis fuel distribution (CGD) networks to spice up provides to home and retail customers in present and upcoming markets. In addition to retailing from OMC gasoline stations, Compressed Bio-Fuel can at a later date be injected into CGD pipelines too for environment friendly distribution and optimised entry of a cleaner and extra reasonably priced gasoline.


 

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Improvement processes and the event business the position of NGOs, SHGs, numerous teams and associations, donors, charities, institutional and different stakeholders.

 

Scheme for Larger Schooling Youth in Apprenticeship and Expertise (SHREYAS)

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of the scheme.
  • For Mains: Significance of the scheme and the necessity for skilling the youth.

 

Context: The Ministry of Human Assets Improvement has launched the Scheme for Larger Schooling Youth in Apprenticeship and Expertise (SHREYAS) for offering business apprenticeship alternatives to the overall graduates exiting in April 2019 by way of the Nationwide Apprenticeship Promotional Scheme (NAPS).

 

What’s it?

  • SHREYAS is a programme basket comprising the initiatives of three Central Ministries, specifically the Ministry of Human Useful resource Improvement, Ministry of Talent Improvement & Entrepreneurship and the Ministry of Labour& Employment viz the Nationwide Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS), the Nationwide Profession Service (NCS)and introduction of BA/BSc/BCom (Skilled) programs within the greater instructional establishments.
  • SHREYAS is a programme conceived for college kids in diploma programs, primarily non-technical, with a view to introduce employable expertise into their studying, promote apprenticeship as integral to schooling and in addition amalgamate employment facilitating efforts of the Authorities into the schooling system in order that clear pathways in the direction of employment alternatives can be found to college students throughout and after their commencement.

Goal: To reinforce the employability of Indian youth by offering ‘on the job work publicity’ and incomes of stipend.

Goal: In all of the tracks collectively, it’s proposed to cowl 50 lakh college students by 2022.

 

Following are the aims of SHREYAS:

  • To enhance employability of scholars by introducing employment relevance into the training means of the upper schooling system.
  • To forge an in depth useful hyperlink between schooling and business/service sectors on a sustainable foundation.
  • To offer expertise that are in demand, to the scholars in a dynamic method.
  • To determine an ‘earn when you study’ system into greater schooling.
  • To assist enterprise/business in securing good high quality manpower.
  • To hyperlink scholar group with employment facilitating efforts of the Authorities.

 

Operation of the Scheme:

  • The first scheme can be operated along side Nationwide Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) which supplies for putting of apprentices upto 10% of the whole work drive in each enterprise/business.
  • The scheme can be carried out by the Sector Talent Councils (SSCs), initially the Banking Finance Insurance coverage Providers (BFSI), Retail, Well being care, Telecom, Logistics, Media, Administration providers, ITeS and Attire. Extra sectors can be added over time with rising apprenticeship demand and curriculum changes.

 

Significance of the scheme:

Schooling with expertise is the necessity of the hour and the SHREYAS might be a serious effort on this path to make diploma college students extra expert, succesful, employable and aligned to the wants of our financial system in order that they contribute to nation’s progress and in addition get hold of gainful employment.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.

 

“Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Help and Innovation Scheme”

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of the scheme, NCDC.
  • For Mains: Significance of the scheme of the position of youth in cooperatives, hurdles and measures wanted.

 

Context: To cater to the wants and aspirations of the youth, the Nationwide Cooperative Improvement Company (NCDC) has launched a youth-friendly scheme ‘Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Help and Innovation Scheme” for attracting them to cooperative enterprise ventures.

 

Key options of the scheme:

  • The scheme would encourage cooperatives to enterprise into new and progressive areas.
  • NCDC has created a devoted fund with liberal options enabling youth to avail the scheme. The scheme shall be linked to Rs 1000 crore ‘Cooperative Begin-up and Innovation Fund (CSIF)’ created by the NCDC. It might have extra incentives for cooperatives of North Japanese area, Aspirational Districts and cooperatives with ladies or SC or ST or PwD members.
  • The funding for the venture might be as much as 80% of the challenge value for these particular classes as towards 70% for others. The scheme envisages 2% lower than the relevant price of curiosity on time period mortgage for the challenge value as much as Rs three crore together with 2 years moratorium on cost of principal. All forms of cooperatives in operation for at the least one yr are eligible.

 

About NCDC:

Nationwide Cooperative Improvement Company (NCDC) was established by an Act of Parliament in 1963 as a statutory Company beneath Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare. It has many regional centres to offer the monetary help to Cooperatives/Societies/Federations.


Related articles from numerous Information Papers:

Paper 2 and three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Necessary Worldwide establishments, businesses and fora, their construction, mandate.
  2. Consciousness within the fields of IT, Area, Computer systems.

 

Inclusive Web Index 2019

 

What to review?

For Prelims: Concerning the Index, classes and efficiency of varied nations.

 

Context: Inclusive Web Index 2019 has been launched.

 

Concerning the Inclusive Web Index:

The Inclusive Web Index, commissioned by Fb and carried out by The Economist Intelligence Unit, seeks to measure the extent to which the Web just isn’t solely accessible and reasonably priced, but in addition related to all, permitting utilization that permits constructive social and financial outcomes at particular person and group degree.

The purpose of the Inclusive Web Index is to offer researchers and policymakers with the knowledge they should allow the useful use of the Web, regardless of age, gender, location or background.

The index assesses the efficiency of 100 nations in 4 classes of inclusion: Accessibility, Affordability, Relevance and Readiness. Every class incorporates key indicators of web inclusion, together with quantitative measures corresponding to community protection and pricing, and qualitative measures such because the presence of e-inclusion insurance policies and the supply of local-language content material.

 

Key findings:

  1. The digital divide seems to be widening on the backside of the revenue pyramid, risking a reversal of previous progress.
  2. Gender gaps in Web entry proceed to slender globally, led by low and decrease middle-income nations.
  3. Considerations about on-line privateness stay excessive, and belief in info from governments on the Web has retreated within the West.
  4. Males have extra Web entry than ladies globally however low and decrease center revenue nations narrowed the gender hole in 2018.
  5. Inclusion for ladies and people with disabilities have improved, with low revenue and lower-middle-income nations driving the progress.

 

Efficiency of varied nations:

  1. Sweden has topped the rankings adopted by Singapore and the US.
  2. India has been ranked 47th.
  3. The UK, Namibia, Eire, Austria, Chile and South Africa are the highest performers of the yr when it comes to gender equality. All these nations had feminine digital expertise coaching plans.

 

Sources: toi.


Paper three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Science and Know-how- developments and their purposes and results in on a regular basis life Achievements of Indians in science & know-how.

 

Nationwide Science Day 2018

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Nationwide science day, Raman impact.
  • For Mains: Achievements of Indians within the area of science and know-how.

 

Context: Nationwide Science Day is widely known on 28th of February yearly with a purpose to commemorate the invention of the Raman Impact in India by the Indian physicist, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman on the identical day within the yr 1928.

For his nice success within the subject of science in India, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was awarded and honored with the Nobel Prize within the Physics within the yr 1930.

Theme: “Science for the Individuals and the Individuals for Science.”

 

What’s Raman impact?

The Raman Impact is a change within the wavelength of sunshine that happens when a light-weight beam is deflected by molecules. When a beam of sunshine traverses a dust-free, clear pattern of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the sunshine emerges in instructions aside from that of the incident (incoming) beam.

Most of this scattered mild is of unchanged wavelength. A small half, nevertheless, has wavelengths totally different from that of the incident mild; its presence is a results of the Raman impact.

 

Raman’s experiment:

The violet mild of the photo voltaic spectrum is remoted with a violet filter and handed by way of the liquid pattern. A lot of the mild rising from the liquid pattern is identical shade because the incident violet beam: the so-called Rayleigh scattered mild (the scattering of sunshine by particles in a medium, with out change in wavelength. It accounts, for instance, for the blue color of the sky, since blue mild is scattered barely extra effectively than purple).

Nevertheless, Raman, together with Okay S Krishnan was capable of present that a few of the scattered mild was a unique shade, which they might isolate through the use of a inexperienced filter positioned between the observer and the pattern.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Paper 2 and four:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Improvement processes and the event business the position of NGOs, SHGs, numerous teams and associations, donors, charities, institutional and different stakeholders.

 

Mother and father Duty and Norms for Accountability and Monitoring (PRANAM) Invoice

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of the Invoice, PRANAM fee.
  • For Mains: Significance, want and potential of the proposed laws.

 

Context: Assam has launched the PRANAM Fee, a panel set as much as take care of the problems regarding a Invoice introduced in for cover of oldsters of state authorities staff.

  • The Mother and father Duty and Norms for Accountability and Monitoring (PRANAM) Invoice, said to be the first-of its-kind Invoice within the nation, is an effort to guard aged mother and father of presidency staff of their occasions of want.

Goal of the invoice: To make sure that no state authorities worker ignores their aged mother and father and single differently-abled siblings.

 

Key Options:

  • The PRANAM Invoice makes it obligatory for the state authorities staff to take care of their mother and father and single differently-abled siblings who would not have their very own sources of revenue.
  • Beneath the invoice’s provisions, if the PRANAM Fee will get a grievance that oldsters of a state authorities worker are being ignored, then 10 or 15 per cent of the worker’s wage shall be deducted by the federal government and paid to the mother and father or differently-abled siblings.
  • The workers of personal corporations and the central authorities working within the state would even be coated by the invoice at a later stage.

 

Sources: toi.


Paper three and four:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Points associated to biotechnology.

 

China drafts new guidelines to oversee biotechnology analysis

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Draft guidelines, gene- modifying technology- overview.
  • For Mains: Significance and the necessity for these guidelines, considerations related to newest developments in gene- modifying.

 

Context: China has drafted new guidelines to oversee biotechnology analysis.

 

Highlights of the draft:

  1. It proposes fines and bans towards rogue scientists.
  2. It proposes to categorise know-how used for extracting genetic supplies, gene modifying, gene switch and stem cell analysis as “excessive danger”.
  3. Scientists could be fined 10 to 20 occasions the quantity of “unlawful revenue” earned from unauthorised analysis and be banned from their subject of labor for six months to at least one yr.
  4. If the circumstances are critical, their medical apply licence shall be revoked and the person shall not interact in medical analysis for all times.

 

What necessitated this?

Just lately a Chinese language researcher brought on a worldwide outcry by claiming that he gene-edited infants.

  • He introduced in November that the world’s first gene-edited infants — twin women — have been born that very same month after he altered their DNA to stop them from contracting HIV by deleting a sure gene beneath a way often known as CRISPR.
  • The declare shocked scientists worldwide, elevating questions on bioethics and placing a highlight on China’s lax oversight of scientific analysis.

Sources: the hindu.

Important Query: Talk about concerning the CRISPR gene modifying know-how and the considerations raised by it.


 

Information for Prelims:

 

2nd Version of ISL Dictionary:

Context: ‘2nd Version of ISL Dictionary’ for Listening to Impaired Individuals has been launched. The Dictionary Consists of 6000 Phrases Beneath Classes of Educational, Authorized, Medical, Technical & On a regular basis Phrases.

Key details:

  • The dictionary has been developed by Indian Signal Language Analysis & Coaching Centre (ISLR&TC) beneath Division of Empowerment of Individuals with Disabilities (DEPwD), M/o Social Justice & Empowerment.
  • Its goal is to offer Deaf individuals the constitutional proper to speech and alternative of freedom of expression and in addition bringing them into the primary stream of the society.

 

“South Coast Railway (SCoR)”- a brand new Zone of Indian Railways:

Context: Creation of a brand new zone with headquarter at Visakhapatnam.

Key details:

  • The brand new zone named “South Coast Railway (SCoR)”, will comprise of present Guntakal, Guntur and Vijayawada divisions.
  • South Central Railway will comprise of Hyderabad, Secunderabad and Nanded divisions.

 

Know-how Help and Outreach (TECH-SOP):

What’s it? TECH – SOP is an initiative of the MSME Ministry to bridge the hole between analysis and improvement establishments and MSMEs in order that they will use newest applied sciences and develop into part of international worth chain.

 

Defence Acquisition Council (DAC):

What’s it? To counter corruption and velocity up decision- making in army procurement, the federal government of India in 2001 determined to arrange an built-in DAC. It’s headed by the Defence Minister.

Goal: The target of the DAC is to make sure expeditious procurement of the accepted necessities of the Armed Forces, when it comes to capabilities sought, and time-frame prescribed, by optimally using the allotted budgetary assets.

Features: The DAC is accountable to provide coverage tips to acquisitions, based mostly on long-term procurement plans. It additionally clears all acquisitions, which incorporates each imported and people produced indigenously or underneath a overseas license.

 

India’s first indigenous semiconductor chips for 4G/LTE and 5G NR modems:

Context: India’s first Indigenous Semiconductor Chips by Bengaluru based mostly semiconductor firm “SIGNALCHIP” for 4G/LTE and 5G NR MODEMs was just lately unveiled.

Significance: With this, India has entered into the elite membership of the world and it will have big implications for India’s knowledge safety and knowledge sovereignty, apart from the constructive financial implications. At current solely eight corporations and some nations can design and construct semiconductor chips.

 

Aarohan Social Innovation Awards:

Context: The Infosys Basis has constituted Aarohan Social Innovation Awards to reward people, groups or NGOs creating options for the social sector.

 

About Aarohan Social Innovation Awards:

Goal: To nurture the tradition of innovation within the social sector to scale constructive change throughout the nation and thereby present a platform to assist the options scale.

The awards can be given away in six classes spanning healthcare, destitute care, rural improvement, ladies’s security and empowerment, schooling and sport and sustainability.


Summaries of Necessary Editorials:

 

Geneva Conference: How will it assist India deliver again captured IAF Pilot?

Context: An Indian pilot was captured by Pakistan after a serious aerial confrontation and chase between Pakistan Air Drive planes, which dropped bombs in 4 places of Jammu and Kashmir, and Indian Air Drive jets that countered them over the Line of Management (LoC).

New Delhi has conveyed to Islamabad that “no hurt” ought to come to the pilot. India has additionally cited the Geneva Conventions whereas demanding the discharge of Wing Commander in Pak custody.

 

What’s the Geneva Conference?

The 1949 Geneva Conventions are a set of worldwide treaties that make sure that combatants conduct themselves in a humane method with non-combatants comparable to civilians and medical personnel, in addition to with combatants not actively engaged in preventing, resembling prisoners of conflict, and wounded or sick troopers. All nations are signatories to the Geneva Conventions. There are 4 conventions, with three protocols added on since 1949.

 

Does the captured pilot rely as a prisoner of warfare?

The provisions of the conventions apply in peacetime conditions, in declared wars, and in conflicts that aren’t recognised as struggle by a number of of the events.

India has stated its airstrikes have been a “non-military” intelligence-led operation and subsequently each side are sure by the Geneva Conventions. This implies the IAF officer is a prisoner of conflict, and his remedy needs to be in accordance with the provisions for PoWs underneath the Geneva Conventions.

 

What are the provisions for PoWs?

The remedy of prisoners of struggle is handled by the Third Conference or treaty. The Third Conference is unambiguous about how prisoners have to be handled: “humanely”. And the duty for this lies with the detaining energy, not simply the people who captured the PoW.

  1. Any illegal act or omission by the Detaining Energy inflicting demise or significantly endangering the well being of a prisoner of conflict in its custody is prohibited, and shall be considered a critical breach of the current Conference.
  2. Particularly, no prisoner of conflict could also be subjected to bodily mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any variety which aren’t justified by the medical, dental or hospital remedy of the prisoner involved and carried out in his curiosity.
  3. Likewise, prisoners of warfare should always be protected, notably towards acts of violence or intimidation and towards insults and public curiosity. Measures of reprisal towards prisoners of warfare are prohibited,” says Article 13 of the Conference.

 

What rights is a PoW entitled to?

Article 14 of the Conference lays down that PoWs are “entitled to in all circumstances to respect for his or her individuals and their honour”.

  1. In captivity, a PoW should not be pressured to offer info of any variety beneath “bodily or psychological torture, nor another type of coercion”.
  2. Refusal to reply questions shouldn’t invite punishment.
  3. A PoW have to be shielded from publicity to preventing.
  4. Use of PoWs as hostages or human shields is prohibited, and a PoW needs to be given the identical entry to security and evacuation amenities as these affiliated to the detaining energy.
  5. Entry to well being amenities, prayer, recreation and train are additionally written into the Conference.
  6. The detaining energy has to facilitate correspondence between the PoW and his household, and should make sure that that is finished with out delays.
  7. A PoW can also be entitled to obtain books or care packages from the surface world.

 

What do the provisions say concerning the launch of prisoners?

Events to the battle “are sure to ship again” or repatriate PoWs, no matter rank, who’re significantly wounded or sick, after having cared for them till they’re match to journey”.

The conflicting events are anticipated to write down into any settlement they could attain to finish hostilities the expeditious return of PoWs.

Earlier such situations:

On the finish of the 1971 conflict, India had greater than 80,000 Pakistani troops who had surrendered to the Indian Military after the liberation of Dhaka. India agreed to launch them beneath the Shimla Settlement of 1972. Pakistan can determine to ship Wing Commander Abhinandan unilaterally, or negotiate his launch with India.

 

In such conditions, who screens whether or not the Geneva Conventions are being adopted?

The Geneva Conventions have a system of “Defending Powers” who be sure that the provisions of the conventions are being adopted by the events in a battle. In concept, both sides should designate states that aren’t celebration to the battle as their “Defending Powers”. In follow, the Worldwide Committee of the Purple Cross often performs this position.