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Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 26 July 2019

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Insights Every day Current Affairs + PIB: 26 July 2019


Related articles from PIB:

 

Kargil Vijay Diwas:

  • Context: Indian Army declared the Kargil mission profitable on July 26, 1999; since then the day has been celebrated annually as Kargil Vijay Diwas.
  • India launched ‘Operation Vijay’ to clear the Kargil sector of infiltration by Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants on the Indian aspect of the Line of Management.
  • Background: The warfare happened between Might and July of 1999 in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kargil district. It began with the infiltration of each Pakistani troops and terrorists into Indian territory. The infiltrators positioned themselves in key places that gave them a strategic benefit in the course of the begin of the conflict.
  • Safed Sagar, the Indian Air Drive’s operation, was a serious a part of the Kargil warfare. It used air power on the peak of 32,000 ft for the primary time.

 

Concerning the territorial military:

  • India’s first Governor Basic Shri C Rajagopalachari formally inaugurated the Indian Territorial Army on October 9 in 1949.
  • It is a corporation the place volunteers apply for a brief period of training every year, so as to be able to deal with any emergent state of affairs or to serve for the defence of India.
  • The Territorial Military, also referred to as the ‘Terriers’, is considered the second line of nationwide defence after the regular Army.
  • The Territorial Military is a part of a Regular Army and its current position is to relieve the Common Army from static duties and help civil administration in dealing with pure calamities and upkeep of essential providers in situations where lifetime of the communities is affected or the security of the nation is threatened and to offer models for Regulars Army as and when required.
  • Territorial Military comes underneath the Defence Ministry.

GS Paper 3:

Subjects coated:

  1. Science and Know-how- developments and their purposes and results in on a regular basis life.

 

International Innovation Index

 

What to review?

For Prelims: GII- efficiency of India and other nations.

For Mains: Want for innovation and authorities efforts to promote innovation.

 

Context: International Innovation Index 2019 has been released.

  • GII rankings are based mostly on 80 indicators, from traditional measurements like analysis and improvement investments and worldwide patent and trademark purposes.
  • Theme for the yr 2019 is – Creating Wholesome Lives – The Future of Medical Innovation, which goals to explore the position of medical innovation because it shapes the future of healthcare.
  • It’s revealed by a specialized company of the United Nations – the World Mental Property Organisation (WIPO) in affiliation with Cornell College and graduate enterprise faculty INSEAD.

 

India’s efficiency:

  1. India’s rank has been improved as it has reached at 52nd position in 2019. India was at 57th place in 2018.
  2. When it comes to innovation and newly-emerging technologies India has been performing properly and has improved its position by 29 locations within the international index since 2015.
  3. India had ranked 81 in 2015, which rose to 66 in 2016, 60 in 2017 and 57 in 2018.
    India continues to be probably the most progressive financial system in central and southern Asia.

 

Key Findings:

  1. Public R&D expenditures, notably in some high-income nations, are rising slowly or under no circumstances.
  2. International panorama of science, innovation, and know-how has undergone necessary shifts during the last many years.
    Asian economies particularly middle-income one, are rapidly contributing to international analysis and improvement (R&D) and international patenting rates by way of WIPO’s International Patent System.

GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, legal guidelines, establishments and our bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of those weak sections.

 

Van Dhan Yojana

 

What to review?

For Prelims: Van Dhan Vikas Kendras.

For Mains: MFP and its significance.

 

Context: Training Workshop for implementing groups of Van Dhan Yojana Organized.

 

About Van Dhan Vikas Kendras initiative:

  • The initiative aims to promote MFPs-centric livelihood improvement of tribal gatherers and artisans.
  • It mainstreams the tribal group by promoting main degree value addition to MFP at grassroots degree.
  • Significance: By way of this initiative, the share of tribals in the value chain of Non-Timber Forest Produce is predicted to rise from the present 20% to around 60%.

 

Implementation:

  • The scheme will probably be carried out by way of Ministry of Tribal Affairs as Nodal Department on the Central Degree and TRIFED as Nodal Company on the Nationwide Degree.
  • At State degree, the State Nodal Company for MFPs and the District collectors are envisaged to play a pivot position in scheme implementation at grassroot degree.
  • Regionally the Kendras are proposed to be managed by a Managing Committee (an SHG) consisting of representatives of Van Dhan SHGs within the cluster.
  • Composition: As per the plan, TRIFED will facilitate institution of MFP-led multi-purpose Van Dhan Vikas Kendras, a cluster of 10 SHGs comprising of 30 tribal MFP gatherers every, within the tribal areas.

 

Significance of MFP:

  • Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is a serious source of livelihood for tribals dwelling in forest areas. The importance of MFPs for this part of the society could be gauged from the fact that round 100 million forest dwellers depend upon MFPs for meals, shelter, medicines and money revenue.
  • It supplies them essential subsistence through the lean seasons, notably for primitive tribal teams akin to hunter gatherers, and the landless. Tribals derive 20-40% of their annual revenue from MFP on which they spend main portion of their time.
  • This activity has robust linkage to ladies’s monetary empowerment as a lot of the MFPs are collected and used/bought by ladies. MFP sector has the potential to create about 10 million workdays yearly in the country.

 

Relevant articles from numerous information sources:

GS Paper 2:

Matter coated:

  1. Statutory, regulatory and numerous quasi-judicial our bodies.

 

Nationwide Knowledge High quality Discussion board (NDQF)

 

What to review?

For prelims: NDQF- options, need and launched by?

For mains: The necessity for knowledge management, challenges present and measures to deal with them.

 

Context: Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)’s National Institute for Medical Statistics (ICMR-NIMS), in partnership with Population Council, has launched the National Knowledge High quality Discussion board (NDQF).

 

Goals:

  • The NDQF aims at establishing protocols and good practices when dealing with knowledge assortment, storage, use and dissemination that may be applied to health and demographic knowledge, as well as replicated throughout industries and sectors.
  • The NDQF aims to do brainstorming, piloting and employ superior modeling methods in synthetic intelligence (AI), machine learning and large knowledge analytics together with utilizing technology-based options to enhance knowledge high quality.

 

Roles and features:
NDQF will combine learnings from scientific and evidence-based initiatives and information actions by way of periodic workshops and conferences.

It can fetch quality knowledge in upcoming well being research and surveys similar to Nationwide Household Well being Survey (NFHS).

 

Benefits and significance:

Its activities will assist establish protocols and good practices of knowledge collection, storage, use and dissemination that can be utilized to health and demographic knowledge, in addition to replicated across industries and sectors famous a launch issued by ICMR.

 

Want:

Knowledge on well being and demographics in India is suffering from incomplete info, overestimation, and under- and over-reporting that lead to hindrance in coverage planning.

 

Challenges present:

  • lack of comparability and poor usability of nationwide degree knowledge sources.
  • discordance between system and survey degree estimates.
  • elevated questionnaire length and questions on socially restricted conversation subjects that translate to poor knowledge quality.
  • age-reporting errors or non-response and intentional skipping of questions.
  • underreporting on account of subjective question interpretation and incompleteness.
  • paucity of knowledge to generate reliable estimates on mortality as main obstacles to quality knowledge.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


 

GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. Government insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.

 

Employment of Native Candidates in Industries and Factories Bill, 2019

 

What to review?

For prelims and mains: Key features of the invoice, need, significance, considerations, challenges and options current.

 

Context: Andhra Pradesh clears bill granting 75% reservation in jobs for locals in factories.

 

AP Employment of Native Candidates in Industries and Factories Bill, 2019- highlights:

The invoice seeks to offer 75% reservation for locals in manufacturing unit jobs.

Coverage: The reservation in jobs for local individuals of the state will prolong to industries, factories, joint venture models and tasks taken up underneath Public-Personal Partnership initiatives. 

The involved factories might want to take up coaching programmes of the local workforce in case they don’t have the requisite expertise.

 

Rationale behind this move:

With progress in industries, the demand for land has been growing. Since a lot of the land requirement is met by buying personal agricultural lands, the land house owners are being displaced and deprived of their occupation and thereby lack of revenue.

Native individuals have complained that industrialisation in their areas have disadvantaged them of technique of livelihood. 

To deal with this gap, the government has brought this legislation.

 

Will it assist?

  • The Andhra Pradesh government’s proposed regulation to enforce 75 % reservation for local candidates in personal sector jobs may be proper in intent, however conceptually flawed and should have little practical value beyond political jingoism.
  • This might mean regardless of the supply, all personal sector enterprises should guarantee a minimal of 75 % employment for local candidates.
  • Within the absence of native candidates of a specific talent degree, the regulation would pressure the employers to recruit them anyway and practice them. The government has promised assist to upskill the employees, however this could possibly be time-consuming. Businesses that have to remain nimble to adapt their business methods to changing market situations might find it robust to satisfy this requirement.
  • A provision of such sweeping import might in truth hinder the state’s economic progress by affecting the convenience of doing enterprise. Ease of recruiting talent is a serious facet that influences the index.
  • If job creation is the intention, the move might develop into counterproductive.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper 3:

Subjects Coated:

Infrastructure- power.

 

Grid Related Rooftop Solar Programme

 

What to Research? 

For Prelims and Mains: Which means, significance and potential of rooftop solar power, challenges therein.

 

Context: Authorities has set a target for set up of Rooftop Solar tasks (RTS) of 40,000 MegaWatt (MW) by 2022 within the nation together with installation of RTS on rooftop of homes.

 

What is rooftop solar?

Rooftop solar installations — versus large-scale solar energy era crops — could be put in on the roofs of buildings. As such, they fall underneath two brackets: business and residential. This simply has to do with whether or not the photo voltaic panels are being put in on prime of economic buildings or residential complexes.

 

What are the benefits?

  • Rooftop photo voltaic offers corporations and residential areas the choice of an alternate supply of electrical energy to that offered by the grid.
  • While the primary advantage of that is to the surroundings, since it reduces the dependence on fossil-fuel generated electrical energy, solar power may also increase the grid provide in locations the place it is erratic.
  • Rooftop solar additionally has the good advantage of with the ability to provide electrical energy to these areas that are not yet related to the grid — remote places and areas the place the terrain makes it troublesome to arrange power stations and lay energy strains.

 

What is the potential for rooftop solar in India?

The Ministry of New and Renewable Power has pegged the market potential for rooftop solar at 124 GW. Nevertheless, just one,247 MW of capacity had been installed as of December 31, 2016. That is a little more than three% of the target for 2022, and 1% of the potential.

 

Why is it not being adopted extensively?

  1. One of many major issues with rooftop photo voltaic — and what impacts photo voltaic power era typically — is the variability in provide. Not solely can the effectivity of the photo voltaic panels differ on any given day relying on how vibrant the daylight is, but the solar panels additionally produce no electricity through the night time. Arguably, night time is when off-grid places most want various sources of electrical energy.
  2. Storage is one answer. Storage know-how for electricity, nevertheless, continues to be underdeveloped and storage solutions are expensive. Most residential clients will find the cost of putting in both rooftop photo voltaic panels and storage amenities prohibitive. Residential areas also include the associated issues of use restrictions of the roof — if the roof is being used for solar era, then it cannot be used for anything.
  3. Another major purpose why rooftop photo voltaic is just not turning into well-liked is that the present electrical energy tariff construction renders it an unviable choice. Many states have adopted a internet metering coverage, which permits disaggregated energy producers to sell excess electrical energy to the grid. Nevertheless, the subsidised tariffs charged to residential clients undermine the economic viability of installing rooftop photo voltaic panels. The potential profit simply doesn’t outweigh the costs.

 

Sources: the Hindu.

 

Mains Question: India has made exceptional strides in renewable power through the current years, which has emerged as an integral part of the answer to nations power wants. Talk about the steps taken by the federal government on this path.


GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. Bilateral, regional and international groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

 

UKIERI Mobility Programme

 

What to review?

For prelims and mains: key features and significance of the programme.

 

Context: India and UK have joined arms collectively for UKIERI Mobility Programme: Research in India which can permit UK students to visit India for larger research.

 

Concerning the UK India Schooling & Analysis Initiative (UKIERI) Mobility Programme: Research in India:

Will probably be a bilateral pilot programme which can help UK universities to collaborate with Indian companions to ship UK college students to India as a part of their studies.

It supplies versatile grants to UK larger schooling establishments (HEIs) and their Indian companion establishments to design and ship academically rigorous short-term mobility opportunities in India for undergraduate students from UK HEIs.

 

The goals and aims of the Programme:

  1. Improve the levels of outward scholar mobility from the UK.
  2. Enhance the employability of UK graduates, recognizing the constructive correlation between international experience, educational efficiency and graduate employability.
  3. Help the internationalization of Indian greater schooling establishments consistent with the Authorities of India’s ‘Research in India’ programme by way of the diversification of the scholar physique, and thru establishing hyperlinks with the potential to seed deeper institutional partnerships and research collaboration. 

 

Sources: the Hindu.

 


Details for prelims:

 

Proahaetulla antiqua:

What’s it? It Is a new species of vine snake discovered just lately by researchers from the Western Ghats that dates again 26 million years.

The species, endemic to southern Western Ghats, is assumed to have advanced through the mid-Oligocene.

 

CARE4U app:

Context: IIT Kharagpur group develops app CARE4U for aged individuals.

Key options of the app:

  • The android-based app will connect the caregiver to the elderly individual.
  • The app has a document of medical histories, allergic reactions’ account, an SOS button, real time location tracking and so on.
  • The network-based fall detection algorithm within the app put in on the telephone of the elderly can detect whether the elderly has fallen down.
  • If there is a fall, it routinely calls the caregiver and emergency providers along with the exact location of the elderly individual.
  • CARE4U also can detect feelings and every time the elderly opens the app, the telephone takes his image and a temper index is calculated. This detects whether or not the individual is gloomy or not and mechanically updates the caregiver with the time stamp.
  • It has a ‘Drugs Reminder’ function to remind each the aged in addition to the caregiver that it is time for the former to take drugs.

 

Jute fibre converted into low-cost bio-degradable cellulose sheets:

Context: Scientists in Bangladesh have developed a way to convert Jute fibre into low-cost bio-degradable cellulose sheets named ‘Sonali’ which can be used as wrapping materials and carrying bag. 
Makes use of: The Eco-friendly jute poly luggage made up of Sonali can be utilized in garments and meals packaging work and they don’t seem to be dangerous for human health.


 

Summaries of essential Editorials:

 

What is a flooring check or trust vote?

A flooring check is a constitutional mechanism. It’s used to determine if the incumbent authorities enjoys the help of the legislature.

 

How it takes place?

  1. This voting process happen within the state’s Legislative Meeting or the Lok Sabha at the central degree.
  2. Technically, the chief minister of a state is appointed by the Governor. The appointed chief minister often belongs to the only largest get together or the coalition which has the ‘magic quantity’. The magic number is the full number of seats required to type a government, or keep in energy. It’s the half-way mark, plus one. In case of a tie, the Speaker casts the deciding vot
  3. Nevertheless, at occasions, a government’s majority may be questioned. The leader of the get together claiming majority has to move a vote of confidence.
  4. If some MLAs stay absent or abstain from voting, the bulk is counted on the idea of these current and voting. This effectively reduces the power of the Home and in turn brings down the majority-mark.
  5. The voting process can occur orally, with digital gadgets or a poll process.
  6. The Governor can even ask the Chief Minister to prove his or her majority within the House if the steadiness of the government comes into query.

 

  1. Composite flooring check:
  2. Whereas there’s one other check, Composite flooring check, which is necessitated when multiple individual stake the claim to type the government and the bulk just isn’t clear.
  3. Governor might name a special session to assess who has the majority. The majority is counted based mostly on these present and voting and this may be accomplished by way of voice vote additionally.