CURRENT AFFAIRS PIB tech

Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 25 December 2018

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Insights Day by day Present Affairs + PIB: 25 December 2018


Paper 2 and three:

Subjects coated:

  1. Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.
  2. Challenges to inner safety via communication networks, position of media and social networking websites in inner safety challenges, fundamentals of cyber safety; money-laundering and its prevention.

 

Amendments to the Info Know-how (IT) Act

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of the IT Act, amendments proposed.
  • For Mains: Significance and the necessity for amendments, considerations related.

 

Context: In its bid to crack down on unfold of faux information and rumours circulated on on-line platforms like WhatsApp, Fb and different on-line platforms, the central authorities has proposed stringent modifications underneath the draft of Part 79 of the Info Know-how (IT) that govern on-line content material.

 

Implications:

The proposed amendments within the draft of the Info Know-how [Intermediaries Guidelines (Amendment) Rules] 2018, Rule three(9) is sure to drive social media platforms like Whatsapp, Fb and Twitter to stay vigil and maintain customers on their toes earlier than posting or sharing something that’s deemed as “illegal info or content material”.

The modifications proposed by the central authorities is aimed toward curbing pretend information or rumours being unfold on social media and verify mob violence forward.

 

What the brand new guidelines suggest?

The modifications would require on-line platforms to interrupt end-to-end encryption in an effort to confirm the origin of messages. The social media platforms to “deploy know-how based mostly automated instruments or applicable mechanisms, with applicable controls, for proactively figuring out or eradicating or disabling entry to illegal info or content material”.

As per the modification, the social media platforms might want to adjust to the central authorities “inside 72 hours” of a question.

There must be a ‘Nodal individual of Contact for 24X7 coordination with regulation enforcement businesses and officers to make sure compliance. The social media platforms can be retaining a vigil on “illegal exercise” for a interval of “180 days”.

 

What necessitated this?

With considerations over “rising incidents of violence and lynching within the nation resulting from misuse of social media platforms”, there’s now want for on-line platforms to shoulder the “duty, accountability and bigger dedication to make sure that its platform is just not misused on a big scale to unfold incorrect details projected as information and designed to instigate individuals to commit crime”.

 

Criticisms:

The proposed modifications have as soon as once more given rise to a debate on whether or not the federal government is intruding into the privateness of people, evoking sharp response from opposition events. Comparable apprehensions have been raised with the Part 66A of the IT Act that enabled authorities to arrest customers for posting content material which was termed as offensive. Nevertheless, the Supreme Courtroom on March 24, 2015, struck down the regulation.

 

Background:

India has the second highest variety of web customers on the earth after China, an estimated 462.12 million. Amongst them, 258.27 million have been more likely to be social community customers within the nation in 2019.

 

Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: Mandating messaging apps to display messages to curb the issue of faux information is improper at a number of ranges. Talk about


Paper 2 and three:

Subjects coated:

  1. Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.
  2. Challenges to inner safety by means of communication networks, position of media and social networking websites in inner safety challenges, fundamentals of cyber safety; money-laundering and its prevention.

 

Evaluate Of Aadhaar Verdict

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of Aadhar, Cash Invoice.
  • For Mains: Options and significance of the decision, Safety considerations and methods to deal with them.

 

Context: A evaluation petition has been filed within the Supreme Courtroom in search of re-examination of its verdict by which the centre’s flagship Aadhaar scheme was held as constitutionally legitimate.

  • The evaluate petition has been filed towards the September 26 verdict of the five-judge structure bench which had stated there was nothing within the Aadhaar Act that violated proper to privateness of a person. The courtroom had additionally upheld the passage of the Aadhaar Invoice as a Cash Invoice by the Lok Sabha.

 

Background:

Whereas declaring the scheme as constitutionally legitimate, the highest courtroom had struck down a few of its provisions together with its linking with financial institution accounts, cell phones and faculty admissions. The structure bench had held that Aadhaar would stay obligatory for submitting of Revenue Tax returns and allotment of Everlasting Account Quantity (PAN).

 

Want for review- calls for by the petitioner:

  • The petition claimed that the Aadhaar program, which had been in existence previous to the enactment of the Aadhaar Act, 2016, had itself turn out to be an “instrument of switch of delicate private knowledge” belonging to residents to overseas entities appearing as biometric service suppliers at a time when the UIDAI in 2010 had no cyber or technical infrastructure to retailer such info.
  • This, the petition claimed, poses an enormous nationwide safety danger, extra so when, in line with a Press Info Bureau notification, 100 crore enrolments had already taken place earlier than April four, 2016.

 

What was the rivalry towards Aadhaar earlier than the Supreme Courtroom?

The primary questions raised through the listening to on Aadhaar have been:

  • Is the Aadhaar Act, 2016, constitutionally legitimate provided that it was handed in Parliament as a Cash Invoice?
  • Why does each citizen want one id proof — a singular identification quantity — to accumulate authorities advantages? Can’t this be achieved utilizing different paperwork, like ration card or passport?
  • Does Aadhaar take away our proper to privateness — upheld as a elementary proper by a nine-judge Structure bench of the courtroom in August final yr.
  • What occurs if Aadhaar knowledge turns into a software for mass surveillance by the state, because the motion and actions of customers might be tracked by accumulating metadata?

 

Supreme Courtroom: Majority Judgement Conclusions:

  • Supreme Courtroom felt that the know-how has turn into an important software for making certain good governance in a welfare state.
  • Schemes resembling PDS, scholarships, Mid-day Meals and LPG subsidies contain big sum of money and Aadhaar helped welfare attain of the poor as a fool-proof mechanism.
  • Majority opinion upholds Aadhaar as an inexpensive restriction on privateness. It fulfils Authorities’s goal to offer dignity to the marginalised.
  • Aadhaar distinctive ID can’t be duplicated, whereas, PAN, Ration Card could be duplicated. It upheld the passage of the Aadhaar Act as a Cash Invoice.
  • The authentication data shouldn’t be retained for greater than 6 months. Archiving of data for 5 years is dangerous in regulation.
  • SC struck down Part 33 (2), which allowed the disclosure of Aadhaar info for nationwide safety causes on the orders of an officer not under a Joint Secretary degree.

 

Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: The Supreme Courtroom finds a practical center path between the Aadhaar scheme excesses and its advantages to the marginalised. Analyze.


Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. India and its neighbourhood- relations.
  2. Bilateral, regional and international groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s pursuits
  3. Impact of insurance policies and politics of developed and creating nations on India’s pursuits, Indian diaspora.

 

Chabahar port

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Location of Chabahar port.
  • For Mains: Significance of the port for India, Challenges to its improvement.

 

Context: India has formally taken over operations of Iran’s strategic Chabahar Port.

  • Iran formally handed over the port to India throughout a primary assembly of the follow-up committee for the implementation of the Chabahar Settlement between Iran, Afghanistan, and India held lately within the port metropolis Tehran.

 

Background:

The Chabahar Settlement was signed in June 2015 and accredited by Iran’s Guardian Council in November 2016. Chabahar is being seen as a gateway for commerce by India, Iran and Afghanistan with Central Asian nations.

 

The place is Chabahar port?

Iran’s Chabahar port is situated on the Gulf of Oman and is the one oceanic port of the nation. The port provides entry to the energy-rich Persian Gulf nations’ southern coast.

 

Why Chabahar port is essential for India?

The at the start significance of the Chabahar port is the truth that India can bypass Pakistan in transporting items to Afghanistan. Chabahar port will increase India’s entry to Iran, the important thing gateway to the Worldwide North-South Transport Hall that has sea, rail and street routes between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia.

 

Chabahar port might be useful to India in countering Chinese language presence within the Arabian Sea which China is making an attempt to make sure by serving to Pakistan develop the Gwadar port. Gwadar port is lower than 400 km from Chabahar by street and 100 km by sea.

 

With Chabahar port being developed and operated by India, Iran additionally turns into a army ally to India. Chabahar could possibly be utilized in case China decides to flex its navy muscle tissue by stationing ships in Gwadar port to reckon its higher hand within the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Center East.

 

With Chabahar port turning into practical, there might be a big increase within the import of iron ore, sugar and rice to India. The import value of oil to India may also see a substantial decline. India has already elevated its crude buy from Iran because the West imposed ban on Iran was lifted.

 

Chabahar port will guarantee within the institution of a politically sustainable connectivity between India and Afghanistan. This can in flip, result in higher financial ties between the 2 nations.

From a diplomatic perspective, Chabahar port could possibly be used as some extent from the place humanitarian operations might be coordinated.

Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: India has formally taken over operations of Iran’s strategic Chabahar Port. Why is investing on this port so necessary for India? Look at.


Paper 2 and three:

Subjects coated:

  1. Separation of powers between numerous organs dispute redressal mechanisms and establishments.
  2. Infrastructure- Power.
  3. Irrigation associated points.

 

Polavaram multi-purpose undertaking

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key information concerning the undertaking.
  • For Mains: Points related and the best way forward.

 

Context: Andhra Pradesh authorities has launched works for erection of the primary radial gate – the 41st one – on the Polavaram undertaking website. The state hopes that the venture works can be accomplished by Might 2019 and water can be launched to canals beneath gravity by December 2019.

The Polavaram venture was accorded nationwide standing in 2014 within the Andhra Pradesh Bifurcation Act and its design was modified.

 

Concerning the Polavaram venture:

Polavaram Undertaking is a multi-purpose irrigation challenge.

The dam throughout the Godavari River is underneath development situated in West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh state and its reservoir spreads in elements of Chhattisgarh and Orissa States additionally.

  • The undertaking is multipurpose main terminal reservoir undertaking on river Godavari for improvement of Irrigation, Hydropower and consuming water amenities to East Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, West Godavari and Krishna districts of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The challenge is more likely to displace over 1.88 lakh individuals throughout 222 villages and thus far, 1,730 individuals in six villages have been rehabilitated by the federal government.

Sources: the hindu.


Paper 2 and three:

Subjects coated:

  1. Improvement processes and the event business the position of NGOs, SHGs, numerous teams and associations, donors, charities, institutional and different stakeholders.
  2. Infrastructure- Railways.

 

Bullet Practice

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of the Bullet practice.
  • For Mains: Do we’d like a bullet practice?- A crucial evaluation.

 

Context: The newest info obtained by an activist beneath the Proper to Info (RTI) has revealed that Mumbai-Ahmedabad bullet practice venture might become a loss-making proposition and burden Maharashtra’s already dwindling funds.

 

Considerations over the venture:

  • A number of objections have been raised by numerous departments over the financial viability of the Shinkansen practice, which might end in losses within the type of wasted Flooring Area Index (FSI) and delayed mortgage reimbursement within the absence of correct frameworks.
  • Some a part of the FSI on the station proposed at Bandra Kurla Complicated (BKC) in Mumbai might “stay unutilised due to the peak restrictions, resulting in income losses”.

 

Criticisms:

  • The federal government is being criticised for clearing a undertaking which has no sensible profit for the State and would add monetary stress.
  • Furthermore, the ministerial committee headed by Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis has not met to debate the challenge since being included in February 2017. The committee was tasked with finishing up an in-depth research of the Japan Worldwide Cooperation Company report and the undertaking’s feasibility.

 

Want of the hour:

Each Planning and Finance departments have referred to as for a radical research of bullet practice economics in different nations earlier than a choice is taken on its feasibility in India. Moreover, the departments stated the Centre should make clear the method for sharing the mortgage burden if the venture stays loss-making for an extended time period. Because the State is dealing with critical loss in revenue and additional burden of loans, the impression of this undertaking on authorities funds must be thought-about.

 

Concerning the undertaking:

The practice, with a capability of 750 passengers, will journey at speeds between 320 km/hr and 350km/hr and is predicted to scale back journey time between Ahmedabad and Mumbai to three-and-a-half hours or much less from the current eight. The undertaking is predicted to be accomplished in seven years.

How India advantages from bullet practice?

Excessive-speed connectivity – This can facilitate financial progress. Smaller cities alongside the best way may also be related with high-speed transit facility to those financial Centres by way of the bullet practice community.

The bullet practice venture is predicted to create four,000 direct job alternatives, together with 20,000 oblique jobs. 20,000 development staff may also be employed through the arrange interval of Ahmedabad-Mumbai bullet practice.

City enlargement – New bullet practice stations set to return up alongside the route will appeal to city progress. It will once more shift the strain of urbanisation from the prevailing city Centres.

Open new avenues – When accomplished, the Ahmedabad-Mumbai bullet practice challenge will current as a positive vacation spot for high-speed practice applied sciences, attracting different events working within the subject.

 

The geostrategic significance of Bullet trains is:

  • The bullet practice is image of robust belief between the India and Japan because it includes the know-how switch on the core of this deal.
  • The bullet practice will create substantial constructive influence on Indian financial system thus constructing the financial affect of nation in Asia and thus everywhere in the world. In longer period of time, this know-how will scale back the dependence of India on Center East nations for oil and different gasoline merchandise.
  • Being the clear know-how India will set an instance for cleaner strategies for mass transportation, particularly for different creating nations. For Japan too, this deal has geostrategic which means. Earlier Japan has misplaced with China in export of Bullet trains in Thailand and Indonesia. This deal is diplomatic win for Japan.

 

Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: Funding in infrastructure improvement has all the time acted as a catalyst within the financial progress of India. Does big investments in bullet trains yield dividends to India? Look at.


Information for Prelims:

 

India’s Longest Railroad Bridge:

Context: The Bogibeel bridge is India’s longest railroad bridge. It was inaugurated lately.

Key information:

  • The bridge is four.94 km lengthy in size. The double decker rail and street bridge, on the Bramhaputra river, will reduce down the train-travel time between Tinsukia in Assam to Naharlagun city of Arunachal Pradesh by greater than 10 hours.
  • Constructed by the Indian Railways, the double-decker bridge is robust sufficient to face up to motion of heavy army tanks.
  • The Bogibeel bridge will join the south financial institution of the Brahmaputra river in Assam’s Dibrugarh district with Silapathar in Dhemaji district, bordering Arunachal Pradesh. The railways have decreased the space between Dhemaji and Dibrugarh from 500 Kms to 100 kms with the completion of the venture.