Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 18 February 2019

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Insights Every day Present Affairs + PIB: 18 February 2019

Related articles from PIB:

Paper 2:

Matter coated:

  1. Matter: mechanisms, legal guidelines, establishments and our bodies constituted for the safety and betterment of those weak sections.


Nationwide Fee for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)


What to review?

For Prelims: About NCST, aims, roles, features and schemes.


Context: Basis Day of Nationwide Fee for Scheduled Tribes is being noticed on 19th February, 2019. The Fee can be celebrating fifteen years on 19th February, 2019.



The Nationwide Fee for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) was arrange on 19th February, 2004 by way of Structure (89th Modification) Act.


NCST management award:

On this event, the Nationwide Fee for Scheduled Tribes has additionally determined to institute a nationwide award named as “NCST Management Award” which can be conferred for vital and exemplary providers in the direction of Scheduled Tribes within the nation.

The awards will probably be given in three classes i.e. (i) Instructional Establishments/ Universities, (ii) Public Sector Undertakings/Banks and (iii) Public Service rendered by an Particular person, NGO or Civil Society.


About NCST:

NCST was established by amending Article 338 and inserting a brand new Article 338A within the Structure by means of the Structure (89th Modification) Act, 2003. By this modification, the erstwhile Nationwide Fee for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was changed by two separate Commissions namely- (i) the Nationwide Fee for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), and (ii) the Nationwide Fee for Scheduled Tribes (NCST).

Composition: The time period of workplace of Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and every member is three years from the date of assumption of cost. The Chairperson has been given the rank of Union Cupboard Minister and the Vice-Chairperson that of a Minister of State and different Members have the ranks of a Secretary to the Authorities of India.

Powers: NCST is empowered to research and monitor issues referring to safeguards offered for STs underneath the Structure or beneath different legal guidelines or underneath Govt. order. The Fee can also be approved to inquire into particular complaints referring to rights and safeguards of STs and to take part and advise within the Planning Course of referring to socio-economic improvement of STs and to guage the progress of their improvement underneath the Union and States.

Report: The fee submits its report back to the President yearly on the working of safeguards and measures required for efficient implementation of Programmers/ Schemes referring to welfare and socio-economic improvement of STs.

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes.


Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme


What to review?

For Prelims: Key options and significance of the scheme.


Context: For the general empowerment of Individuals with Disabilities (Divyangajan), a “Regional Convention on Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS)” is being organized by the Division of Empowerment of Individuals with Disabilities (DEPwD), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Authorities of India at Kolkata, West Bengal.

The stakeholders i.e. the NGOs receiving grant beneath DDRS, State Authorities Officers & District degree officers shall be collaborating.


Goals of the convention:

  1. To disseminate the provisions of the revised scheme and to sensitize numerous stake holders about it.
  2. To offer a singular alternative for interactions amongst all stakeholders.
  3. To make sure change of cross-sectoral views on the features of the efficacy of the scheme in addition to the scope of enhancements in it.


About Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS):

“Scheme to Promote Voluntary Motion for Individuals with Disabilities” was revised and renamed because the “Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS)”.


The aims of the scheme are:

  1. To create an enabling surroundings to make sure equal alternatives, fairness, social justice and empowerment of individuals with disabilities.
  2. To encourage voluntary motion for making certain efficient implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities (Equal Alternatives and Safety of Rights) Act of 1995.


Strategy and Technique:

The strategy of this Scheme is to offer monetary help to voluntary organizations to make obtainable the entire vary of providers vital for rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities together with early intervention, improvement of day by day dwelling expertise, schooling, skill-development oriented in the direction of employability, coaching and consciousness era.

With a view to inclusion of individuals with disabilities within the mainstream of society and actualizing their potential, the thrust can be on schooling and coaching programmes.


Mains Query: Do you assume governments have completed full justice to the nation’s estimated 2.68 crore disabled individuals? Critically touch upon present insurance policies on disabled individuals and measures must be taken to empower them, particularly in offering employment.

Paper 1 and a couple of:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Indian tradition will cowl the salient features of Artwork Varieties, Literature and Structure from historic to trendy occasions.
  2. Improvement processes and the event business the position of NGOs, SHGs, numerous teams and associations, donors, charities, institutional and different stakeholders.


Eco Circuit


What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of the scheme, numerous circuits coated beneath the scheme and their geographical places.
  • For Mains: Significance of the scheme and the necessity for the scheme, implementational challenges.


Context: ‘Improvement of Eco Circuit: Pathanamthitta – Gavi – Vagamon – Thekkady’ beneath the Swadesh Darshan scheme of Ministry of Tourism was just lately inaugurated.

Eco Circuit is among the fifteen thematic circuits recognized for improvement beneath Swadesh Darshan Scheme- Built-in improvement of theme- based mostly vacationer circuits within the nation.

Main works carried out underneath the venture consists of Eco Journey Tourism Park at Vagamon, Cultural Centre at Kadamanitta, Eco Log Huts at Peerumedu, Idukki, Strategy Roads, Strolling trails, Rain Shelters at Pine Valley Forest, Thekkady, Kumily, Moozhiyar Dam, Penstock and Kakki Dam.


About Swadesh Darshan Scheme:

The Tourism Ministry had launched ‘Swadesh Darshan’ scheme with an goal to develop theme-based vacationer circuits within the nation. These vacationer circuits shall be developed on the rules of excessive vacationer worth, competitiveness and sustainability in an built-in method.


Options of Swadesh Darshan Scheme:

  1. The scheme is 100% centrally funded for the venture elements undertaken for public funding.
  2. It leverages the voluntary funding out there for Company Social Duty (CSR) initiatives of Central Public Sector Undertakings and company sector.
  3. Funding of particular person challenge will range from state to state and shall be finalised on the idea of detailed undertaking stories ready by PMC (Programme Administration Advisor).
  4. A Nationwide Steering Committee (NSC) will probably be constituted with Minister answerable for M/O Tourism as Chairman, to steer the mission goals and imaginative and prescient of the scheme.
  5. A Mission Directorate headed by the Member Secretary, NSC as a nodal officer will assist in identification of tasks in session with the States/ UTs governments and different stake holders.
  6. PMC can be a nationwide degree advisor to be appointed by the Mission Directorate.

Related articles from numerous Information Papers:

Paper 2 and three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.
  2. Infrastructure- roadways and power.


Tips on Electrical Car Charging Infrastructure


What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key Tips on Electrical Car Charging Infrastructure.
  • For Mains: Coverage and schemes associated to e- automobiles and their significance, challenges within the sector and reforms wanted.


Context: Authorities has issued tips to improve the charging infrastructure within the nation to spice up the electrical automobiles.

On this regard, the Union Housing and City Affairs Ministry has made amendments to the Mannequin Constructing Byelaws (MBBL) 2016 and City Regional Improvement Plans Formulation and Implementation (URDPFI) Tips 2014, making provisions for establishing EV charging infrastructure.


Key Options of the Tips:

  • A public charging station ought to be on each side of the highways or roads on each 25 km.
  • For lengthy vary and heavy-duty electrical automobiles, there must be a minimum of one station on all sides of the freeway each 100 kilometres.
  • Charging amenities may also be obtainable at bus depots and transport hubs inside three years. Within the first part, to be accomplished by 2021, mega cities — with a inhabitants of over four million as per the 2011 census — shall be coated.
  • The federal government has additionally permitted personal charging at residences and workplaces.


Significance of those tips:

The centre estimates that 25% of the whole automobiles on roads can be electrical automobiles by 2030. This necessitates the erection of strong electrical car (EV) charging infrastructure throughout the nation. The rules are a step ahead on this course.

In addition to, India is dedicated to United Nations’ objective to take pressing motion to fight local weather change. Authorities has initiated a number of steps to scale back dependence on fossil fuels. Considered one of such steps is to encourage environment-friendly electrical automobiles.


Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: The current tips with respect to charging stations for electrical automobiles will lastly increase electrical automobiles within the nation. Critically look at.

Paper 2 and three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.
  2. Employment associated points.


Kannadigas to get precedence in personal sector jobs


What to review?

  • For Prelims: Concerning the new coverage of Karnataka.
  • For Mains: Significance, challenges and considerations related, what’s the want of the hour?


Context: Karnataka authorities has determined to amend the Karnataka Industrial Employment (Standing Orders), Guidelines, 1961 to offer primacy to Kannadigas in jobs beneath Group C and D class within the personal sector.

Sarojini Mahishi report had beneficial granting primacy for the Kannadigas within the personal sector jobs.

  • The federal government can be incorporating the provisions to withdraw authorities concessions to the companies on non-compliance.


Sarojini Mahishi Report:

The Karnataka authorities had shaped a committee headed by former union minister Sarojini Mahishi in 1983 to advocate job alternatives for Kannadigas in Karnataka.

The essential suggestions of the committee included:

  • 100 per cent reservation for Kannadigas in all state authorities departments and PSUs.
  • 100 per cent reservation for Kannadigas for Group C and D jobs in Central authorities departments and PSUs.
  • A minimal 80 per cent reservation for Kannadigas for Group B jobs in Central authorities departments and PSUs
  • 65 per cent reservation for Kannadigas for Group A jobs in Central authorities departments and PSUs.
  • All jobs within the personal sector to be reserved for Kannadigas barring, if vital, senior/expert positions.


What’s the idea for this transfer?

Competitors from outsiders: For a minimum of over a decade, particularly after Bangalore exploded on the nationwide and international map as probably the most sought-after vacation spot primarily for software program improvement, it witnessed an enormous inhabitants inflow from all corners of India naturally upsetting the native and migrant stability and inflicting social friction primarily owing to financial causes.

With not sufficient jobs being created and the poor unfold of these which might be getting created, the strain on, and in, comparatively better-performing states is rising.


Points related to this coverage:

  1. By arm-twisting the personal sector into forcibly hiring Kannadigas regardless of benefit or qualification, the oblique assumption appears to be that Kannadigas are incapable of discovering jobs on their very own benefit or arduous work.
  2. Even because the transfer will profit the Kannadiga inhabitants, with 100% reservation, the personal sector might endure a setback as it will hinder selecting the perfect candidates, regardless of the linguistic background or domicile of the individual, to adjust to the rule.
  3. Additionally, as soon as it’s enforced, there isn’t any stopping different states from arising with comparable populist insurance policies, even for white-collar jobs the place benefit is paramount for productiveness. This might imply higher informalisation of labour, which in flip means larger insecurity for a similar staff whose pursuits the Karnataka authorities is purportedly defending with the transfer.
  4. It might additionally violate the landmark Indra Sawhney judgment of the Supreme Courtroom which caps reservation “of any method” at 50%.
  5. The top results of business lack of confidence and enterprise shifting elsewhere would, in fact, be a decline within the financial well-being of the Kannadiga blue-collar staff the coverage is meant to guard.


Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: The Karnataka authorities has launched draft amendments to the Karnataka Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Guidelines of 1961 that might implement 100% reservation for Kannadigas for blue-collar jobs within the personal sector. Is it a superb coverage transfer? Critically analyse.

Paper 1:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Essential Geophysical phenomena similar to earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic exercise, cyclone and so on., geographical options and their location- modifications in essential geographical options (together with water-bodies and ice-caps) and in wildlife and the consequences of such modifications.


Scientists uncover large mountains underneath Earth’s crust


What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Newest findings and their implications and significance, about earthquake waves.


Context: Scientists have found large mountains within the Earth’s mantle, an advance which will change our understanding of how the planet was shaped.


Concerning the discovery:

  1. These newly found mountains are situated between higher and decrease mantle. Scientists used knowledge from an unlimited earthquake in Bolivia to seek out mountains and different topography on a layer situated 660 km straight down, which separates the higher and decrease mantle.
  2. Knowledge from earthquakes which are magnitude or greater sends shockwaves in all instructions that may journey via the core to the opposite aspect of the planet — and again once more.
  3. Missing a proper identify for this layer, the researchers merely name it “the 660-km boundary.”



The presence of roughness on the 660-km boundary has vital implications for understanding how our planet shaped and advanced.


What are earthquake waves?

Earthquake waves are principally of two varieties – physique waves and floor waves.

Physique waves: They’re generated because of the launch of power on the focus and strikes in all instructions touring by means of the physique of the earth. Therefore, the identify – physique waves. They journey solely via the inside of the earth. Physique waves are quicker than floor waves and therefore they’re the primary to be detected on a seismograph. There are two varieties of physique waves as main waves and secondary waves.

Floor Waves: When the physique waves work together with floor rocks, a brand new set of waves is generated referred to as as floor waves. These waves transfer alongside the earth floor. Floor waves are additionally transverse waves by which particle motion is perpendicular to the wave propagation. Therefore, they create crests and troughs within the materials by means of which they move.

Floor waves are thought-about to be probably the most damaging waves. Two widespread floor waves are Love waves and Rayleigh waves.


Sources: the hindu.

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Appointment to varied Constitutional posts, powers, features and obligations of varied Constitutional Our bodies.


Finance Fee of India


What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: About FC- roles, goals, features, standards used and wish for reforms.


Context: Individuals representatives of Panchayat Raj establishments and concrete native our bodies in Hyderabad are planning to make a case with the visiting 15th Central Finance Fee to reinforce the quantum of funds to the native our bodies. Extra so to launch the share of funds that the zilla and mandal parishads used to get instantly until the 14th Finance Fee discontinued the follow and diverted them to the gram panchayats.


What’s the Finance Fee?

The Finance Fee is constituted by the President beneath article 280 of the Structure, primarily to provide its suggestions on distribution of tax revenues between the Union and the States and amongst the States themselves.

Two distinctive options of the Fee’s work contain redressing the vertical imbalances between the taxation powers and expenditure duties of the centre and the States respectively and equalization of all public providers throughout the States.


What are the features of the Finance Fee?

It’s the obligation of the Fee to make suggestions to the President as to:

  1. the distribution between the Union and the States of the web proceeds of taxes that are to be, or could also be, divided between them and the allocation between the States of the respective shares of such proceeds;
  2. the rules which ought to govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India;
  3. the measures wanted to reinforce the Consolidated Fund of a State to complement the assets of the Panchayats and Municipalities within the State on the idea of the suggestions made by the Finance Fee of the State;
  4. some other matter referred to the Fee by the President within the pursuits of sound finance.

The Fee determines its process and have such powers within the efficiency of their features as Parliament might by regulation confer on them.


Who appoints the Finance Fee and what are the qualifications for Members?

The Finance Fee is appointed by the President underneath Article 280 of the Structure.   As per the provisions contained within the Finance Fee [Miscellaneous Provisions] Act, 1951 and The Finance Fee (Salaries & Allowances) Guidelines, 1951, the Chairman of the Fee is chosen from amongst individuals who’ve had expertise in public affairs, and the 4 different members are chosen from amongst individuals who:

  • are, or have been, or are certified to be appointed as Judges of a Excessive Courtroom; or
  • have particular information of the funds and accounts of Authorities; or
  • have had large expertise in monetary issues and in administration; or
  • have particular information of economics


The suggestions of the Finance Fee are carried out as underneath:

These to be carried out by an order of the President:

  • The suggestions referring to distribution of Union Taxes and Duties and Grants-in-aid fall on this class.
  • These to be carried out by government orders:
  • Different suggestions to be made by the Finance Fee, as per its Phrases of Reference


When was the primary Fee Constituted and what number of Commissions have been Constituted thus far?

The First Finance Fee was constituted vide Presidential Order dated 22.11.1951 beneath the chairmanship of Shri Okay.C. Neogy on sixth April, 1952.  Fifteenth Finance Commissions have been Constituted to date at intervals of each 5 years.


Why is there a necessity for a Finance Fee?

The Indian federal system permits for the division of energy and obligations between the centre and states.  Correspondingly, the taxation powers are additionally broadly divided between the centre and states.  State legislatures might devolve a few of their taxation powers to native our bodies.


Method used for distribution:

The share in central taxes is distributed amongst states based mostly on a method.  Earlier Finance Commissions have thought-about numerous elements to find out the standards such because the inhabitants and revenue wants of states, their space and infrastructure, and so forth.  Additional, the weightage assigned to every criterion has different with every Finance Fee.

The standards utilized by the 11th to 14thFinance Commissions are:

Inhabitants is an indicator of the expenditure wants of a state. Through the years, Finance Commissions have used inhabitants knowledge of the 1971 Census.  The 14th Finance Fee used the 2011 inhabitants knowledge, along with the 1971 knowledge.  The 15th Finance Fee has been mandated to make use of knowledge from the 2011 Census.

Space is used as a criterion as a state with bigger space has to incur further administrative prices to ship providers.

Revenue distance is the distinction between the per capita revenue of a state with the typical per capita revenue of all states. States with decrease per capita revenue could also be given a better share to take care of fairness amongst states.

Forest cowl signifies that states with giant forest covers bear the price of not having space out there for different financial actions. Subsequently, the rationale is that these states could also be given a better share.



Apart from the taxes devolved to states, one other supply of transfers from the centre to states is grants-in-aid. As per the suggestions of the 14th Finance Fee, grants-in-aid represent 12% of the central transfers to states. The 14th Finance Fee had advisable grants to states for 3 functions: (i) catastrophe aid, (ii) native our bodies, and (iii) income deficit.


Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: What are the essential features of Finance Fee? Do you assume Finance Fee is functioning as an arbitrator between the Union and State governments? Critically look at.

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Impact of insurance policies and politics of developed and creating nations on India’s pursuits, Indian diaspora.


Azov sea


What to Research?

  • For Prelims: Location of Azov Sea and Kerch strait.
  • For Mains: Battle on Azov sea between Russia and Ukraine, its political implications, influence on different nations, what must be carried out?


Context: The EU has determined to sanction eight Russian nationals for his or her duty in incidents within the Azov Sea final November.

The Ukraine-Russia battle flared up when Russian forces seized three Ukrainian vessels and captured two dozen sailors as they tried to cross from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov.


Concerning the battle within the Sea of Azov:

Ukraine and Russia accuse one another of violating worldwide maritime regulation. They check with the 1982 UN Conference on the Regulation of the Sea, which each states joined within the 1990s.

Ukraine insists on freedom of motion within the Kerch Strait and the Sea of Azov in accordance with this settlement, whereas the Russian aspect is making an attempt to attract territorial borders. The nations even have a bilateral settlement on the free use of the Kerch Strait and the Sea of Azov, an accord that Russia has by no means referred to as into query.


Why the Kerch Strait is necessary?

The Kerch Strait is the one connection between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, and the one approach to attain two necessary Ukrainian ports, Mariupol and Berdiansk. Russia has managed the strait since annexing Crimea in 2014, which has made visitors considerably harder for Ukrainian ships.


About Sea of Azov:

  1. It’s a sea in Japanese Europe. To the south it’s linked by the slender (about four km or 2.5 mi) Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea, and it’s typically considered a northern extension of the Black Sea.
  2. The ocean is bounded within the north and within the west by Ukraine, within the east by Russia.
  3. The Don and Kuban are the key rivers that stream into it.
  4. The Sea of Azov is the shallowest sea on the planet, with the depth various between zero.9 and 14 metres.


Sources: the hindu.

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Necessary Worldwide establishments, businesses and fora, their construction, mandate.


Worldwide Courtroom of Justice


What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: All about ICJ and comparability with ICC, Jadhav’s case and what can India do now on this case?


Context: The Worldwide Courtroom of Justice (ICJ) will start listening to the case of Kulbhushan Jadhav at The Hague. Pakistan has sentenced Jadhav to dying for spying whereas India claims he isn’t a spy and is difficult his demise sentence.


About ICJ:

What’s it?

The Worldwide Courtroom of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial physique of the UN. Established in 1946 to exchange the Everlasting Courtroom of Worldwide Justice, the ICJ primarily operates underneath the statute of its predecessor, which is included within the UN Constitution.

It has two main features: to settle authorized disputes submitted by States in accordance with established worldwide legal guidelines, and to behave as an advisory board on points submitted to it by approved worldwide organizations.


Members of the Courtroom:

The Worldwide Courtroom of Justice consists of 15 judges elected to nine-year phrases of workplace by the United Nations Basic Meeting and the Safety Council. These organs vote concurrently however individually. So as to be elected, a candidate should obtain an absolute majority of the votes in each our bodies. In an effort to guarantee a measure of continuity, one third of the Courtroom is elected each three years. Judges are eligible for re-election.


Who nominates the candidates?

  • Each state authorities, social gathering to the Constitution, designates a gaggle who suggest candidates for the workplace of ICJ judges. This group consists of 4 members/jurists of the Everlasting Courtroom of Arbitration (equipment which allows arbitral tribunals to be arrange as desired and facilitates their work) additionally picked by the State. Nations not a part of the statute comply with the identical process the place a gaggle nominates the candidates.
  • Every group is restricted to appoint 4 candidates, two of whom might be of their nationality. Inside a hard and fast period set by the Secretary-Common, the names of the candidates should be despatched to him/her.


What are the qualifications of ICJ judges?

  • A decide ought to have a excessive ethical character.
  • A decide ought to match to the qualifications of appointment of highest judicial officers as prescribed by their respective states or.
  • A decide must be a juriconsult of acknowledged competence in worldwide regulation.


The 15 judges of the Courtroom are distributed as per the areas:

  • Three from Africa.
  • Two from Latin America and Caribbean.
  • Three from Asia.
  • 5 from Western Europe and different states.
  • Two from Japanese Europe.


Independence of the Judges:

  • As soon as elected, a Member of the Courtroom is a delegate neither of the federal government of his personal nation nor of that of some other State. In contrast to most different organs of worldwide organizations, the Courtroom isn’t composed of representatives of governments. Members of the Courtroom are unbiased judges whose first activity, earlier than taking over their duties, is to make a solemn declaration in open courtroom that they may train their powers impartially and rigorously.
  • To be able to assure his or her independence, no Member of the Courtroom may be dismissed until, within the unanimous opinion of the opposite Members, he/she not fulfils the required circumstances. This has in truth by no means occurred.


Sources: the hindu.

Paper three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Main crops cropping patterns in numerous elements of the nation, several types of irrigation and irrigation methods storage, transport and advertising of agricultural produce and points and associated constraints; e-technology in assistance from farmers.


Coverage bias towards rainfed agriculture


What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Numerous schemes for the help of rainfed agriculture within the nation, challenges confronted by them and the necessity for pressing reforms.


Context: A brand new rainfed agriculture atlas has been launched lately. It has been launched by Revitalising Rainfed Agriculture (RRA) Community.

The atlas not solely maps the agro biodiversity and socio-economic circumstances prevailing in such areas, but in addition makes an attempt to doc the coverage biases which are making farming unviable for a lot of in these areas.


Challenges current:

  1. Three out of 5 farmers in India develop their crops utilizing rainwater, as an alternative of irrigation. Nevertheless, per hectare authorities funding into their lands could also be 20 occasions decrease, authorities procurement of their crops is a fraction of main irrigated land crops, and most of the authorities’s flagship agriculture schemes are usually not tailor-made to profit them.
  2. There was “negligence” towards rainfed areas which is resulting in decrease incomes for farmers in these areas. Farmers in rainfed areas are receiving 40% much less of their revenue from agriculture compared to these in irrigated areas.
  3. Lands irrigated via massive dams and canal networks get a per hectare funding of ₹5 lakh. Watershed administration spending in rainfed lands is simply ₹18,000-25,000.
  4. The distinction in yield isn’t proportionate to the distinction in funding. Relating to procurement, over the last decade between 2001-02 and 2011-12, the federal government spent ₹5.four lakh crore on wheat and rice. Coarse cereals, that are grown in rainfed areas, solely had ₹three,200 crore value of procurement in the identical interval.
  5. Flagship authorities schemes, corresponding to seed and fertiliser subsidies and soil well being playing cards, are designed for irrigated areas and easily prolonged to rainfed farmers with out taking their wants into consideration.


What must be executed?

  1. A extra balanced strategy is required to provide rainfed farmers the identical analysis and know-how focus, and manufacturing help that their counterparts in irrigation areas have acquired over the previous few many years.
  2. In the long term, money incentives and revenue help just like the PM-KISAN scheme introduced within the finances are higher than in depth procurement. Whereas revenue help is essential to assist farmers via the present disaster, it’s now the time to design higher structured interventions for the longer term.


Sources: the hindu.

Details for Prelims:



Context: EXERCISE VAYU SHAKTI-2019 was held just lately in Rajasthan.

  • Vayu Shakti is held by Indian Airforce.
  • It demonstrates the IAF’s means to strike targets on the bottom comparable to enemy convoys and tanks, radar stations, railway yards and army headquarters.


In news- Blackbuck:

Key details:

  • The blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) is an antelope indigenous to the India plains. Additionally present in India, Nepal and Pakistan.
  • The Females are usually hornless.
  • It’s thought-about to be the quickest animal subsequent to Cheetah.
  • It’s of Least Concern in response to the IUCN pink record.