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Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 15 February 2019

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Insights Day by day Present Affairs + PIB: 15 February 2019


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Paper 2 and three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes; mechanisms, legal guidelines, establishments and our bodies constituted for the safety and betterment of those weak sections.
  2. Inclusive progress and points arising from it.

 

Nationwide Minimal Wage

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Highlights of the suggestions and standards used to find out the Nationwide Minimal Wage.
  • For Mains: Nationwide Minimal wage-need, significance, challenges and advantages.

 

Context: Professional Committee Submits its Report on Figuring out Methodology for Fixing Nationwide Minimal Wage.

 

Background:

There have been a number of developments because the norms for the fixation of the minimal wages have been beneficial by the 15th ILC in 1957 and subsequently strengthened by the judgement of the Supreme Courtroom within the judgement of Workmen v Reptakos Brett & Co. case in 1992.

The Ministry of Labour and Employment had constituted an skilled committee in January 2017, beneath the Chairmanship Dr. Anoop Satpathy to assessment and advocate methodology for fixation of Nationwide Minimal Wage (NMW).

 

Standards on which the minimal wage has been proposed:

  • Utilizing the dietary requirement norms as beneficial by the Indian Council of Medical Analysis (ICMR) for Indian inhabitants, the report has really helpful a balanced food regimen strategy which is culturally palatable for fixation of nationwide minimal wage.
  • Accordingly, it has proposed that meals gadgets amounting to the extent of ± 10 per cent of two,400 energy, together with proteins ≥ 50 gm and fat ≥ 30 gm per day per individual to represent a nationwide degree balanced meals basket.
  • It additionally proposes minimal wage ought to embrace affordable expenditure on ‘important non-food gadgets’, reminiscent of clothes, gasoline and lightweight, home lease, schooling, medical bills, footwear and transport, which have to be equal to the median class and expenditure on any ‘different non-food gadgets’ be equal to the sixth fractile (25-30 per cent) of the family expenditure distribution as per the NSSO-CES 2011/12 survey knowledge.

 

What’s the proposed Nationwide Minimal wage?

On the idea of the aforesaid strategy, the report has beneficial to repair the necessity based mostly nationwide minimal wage for India at INR 375 per day (or INR 9,750 per 30 days) as of July 2018, regardless of sectors, expertise, occupations and rural-urban places for a household comprising of three.6 consumption unit.

It has additionally beneficial to introduce a further home lease allowance (metropolis compensatory allowance), averaging as much as INR 55 per day i.e., INR 1,430 per thirty days for city staff over and above the NMW.

 

Regional variations:

Aside from proposing the extent of a single nationwide minimal wage at an all-India degree, the report has additionally estimated and beneficial totally different nationwide minimal wages for various geographical areas of the nation to go well with the native realities and as per socio-economic and labour market contexts.

For the aim of estimating nationwide minimal wages at regional ranges it has grouped the states into 5 areas based mostly on a composite index and have really helpful area particular nationwide minimal wages as follows:

Approach forward:

The committee has additionally advisable reviewing the consumption basket each 5 years, topic to the supply of NSSO-CES knowledge, and – inside the interval of 5 years – revising and updating the essential minimal wage no less than in keeping with the buyer worth index (CPI) each six months, to mirror modifications in the price of dwelling.

 

Mains Query: Do you assume there must be a regulation to make sure minimal wages relevant to all staff throughout that nation together with sector-specific minimal wages for industrial staff? Substantiate.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes; mechanisms, legal guidelines, establishments and our bodies constituted for the safety and betterment of those weak sections.

 

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – City

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: PMAY- City- key options.
  • For Mains: Significance of the scheme, challenges forward and measures wanted to realize the goal.

 

Context: Authorities has launched a Cellular App to Permit Beneficiaries to Seize & Add Pictures of Accomplished Homes beneath PMAY- U.

 

About PMAY- City:

The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (City) Programme launched by the Ministry of Housing and City Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA), in Mission mode envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022, when the Nation completes 75 years of its Independence.

 

The Mission seeks to deal with the housing requirement of city poor together with slum dwellers via following programme verticals:

  1. Slum rehabilitation of Slum Dwellers with participation of personal builders utilizing land as a useful resource.
  2. Promotion of Reasonably priced Housing for weaker part by way of credit score linked subsidy.
  3. Reasonably priced Housing in Partnership with Public & Personal sectors.
  4. Subsidy for beneficiary-led particular person home development /enhancement.

 

Key information:

  1. The beneficiaries are poor and other people dwelling beneath EWS and LIG classes within the nation.
  2. The scheme is split into three phases. Within the first part, a complete of 100 cities can be coated from April 2015 to March 2017. In part two, 200 cities shall be coated from April 2017 to March 2019. Within the third part, the leftover cities can be coated from April 2019 to March 2022.
  3. The federal government is offering an curiosity subsidy of 6.5% on housing loans which could be availed by beneficiaries for 15 years from begin of mortgage date.
  4. The federal government will grant Rs 1 lakh to all of the beneficiaries of the scheme. As well as, Rs 1.5 lakh shall be given to all eligible city poor who need to assemble their homes in city areas or plan to go for renovation of their present homes. One may also avail loans underneath this scheme to construct bogs in present homes.

 

Challenges forward:

  • In accordance with the findings by scores company Crisil, the central authorities has to mobilise Rs 1 lakh crore within the subsequent three years for attaining its goal of constructing 1 crore homes underneath the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – City (PMAY-U).
  • That is going to be a tall activity given the present fiscal arithmetic. The scheme additionally faces headwinds reminiscent of unavailability of land in prime areas, low participation of personal builders on account of brand name dilution, bidding mechanism, stringent value and time schedules leading to low yields, growing development prices as a consequence of absence of bulk sourcing of supplies, and lack of latest know-how that impacts productiveness, value effectivity and high quality.

 

Significance of the scheme:

  • PMAY-U does supply an enormous alternative for a number of sectors by setting off a virtuous cycle.
  • One crore homes would imply a chance for over Rs 2 lakh crore of house loans, and incremental consumption of 80-100 million tonne of cement and 10-15 million tonne of metal.
  • The development alternative is of about 4 billion sq. ft over the lifetime of PMAY-U and all that may translate into 9-10 crore incremental jobs over the execution interval.

 

Mains Query: Infrastructure improvement has witnessed vital impetus in India within the current years. Talk about. 


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes.

 

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojana

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: The scheme- options, significance, want and potential.

 

Context: The Union Ministry of Labour and Employment has launched the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan Yojana (PM-SYM), a mega pension scheme for unorganised sector. The scheme was introduced within the Interim Price range 2019.

 

About Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojana:

PM-SYM is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme that may interact as many as 42 crore staff within the unorganised sector.

 

Eligibility:

  1. The unorganised sector staff, with revenue of lower than Rs 15,000 per 30 days and who belong to the entry age group of 18-40 years, can be eligible for the scheme.
  2. These staff shouldn’t be coated underneath New Pension Scheme (NPS), Staff’ State Insurance coverage Company (ESIC) scheme or Staff’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).
  3. She or he shouldn’t be an revenue tax payer.

 

Advantages:

Minimal Assured Pension: Every subscriber beneath the scheme will obtain minimal assured pension of Rs 3000 per 30 days after attaining the age of 60 years.

In case of demise throughout receipt of pension: If the subscriber dies in the course of the receipt of pension, his or her partner might be entitled to obtain 50 % of the pension as household pension. This household pension is relevant solely to partner.

In case of dying earlier than the age of 60 years: If a beneficiary has given common contribution and dies earlier than attaining the age of 60 years, his or her partner can be entitled to proceed the scheme subsequently by cost of normal contribution or might even exit the scheme.

 

Contribution to the scheme:

Contribution by the Subscriber: The subscriber is required to contribute the prescribed contribution quantity from the age of becoming a member of the scheme until the age of 60 years.

Medium of contribution: The subscriber can contribute to the PM-SYM by way of ‘auto-debit’ facility from his or her financial savings checking account or from his or her Jan- Dhan account.

Equal contribution by the Central Authorities: Underneath the PM-SYM, the prescribed age-specific contribution by the beneficiary and the matching contribution by the Central Authorities will probably be made on a ‘50:50 foundation’.


Related articles from numerous Information Papers:

Paper three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Conservation associated points.

 

Dolphin census

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Dolphins in India- varieties and IUCN standing, highlights of the census, want for cover.

 

Context: Annual Dolphin census was just lately carried out in Odisha by the state’s forest and setting division.

The census coated essential aquatic ecosystems within the state together with the Chilika lake, India’s largest brackish water lagoon, unfold over the Puri, Khurda and Ganjam districts, the Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary and its close by areas inside the Bhitarkanika Nationwide Park in Kendrapara district, Balasore district and the mouth of the Rushukulya River in Ganjam district.

 

Essential findings:

Inhabitants declined from 469 in 2018 to 259 this yr. The discount within the variety of dolphins in comparison with final yr could possibly be because of the migration of species from the Chilika Lake and different water our bodies to the deep sea.

Gahirmatha is the house of the state’s largest dolphin inhabitants, having 126 animals. Extra dolphins have been present in Gahirmatha than Chilika resulting from its greater areas. 

After Gahirmatha, Chilika had the subsequent largest inhabitants at 113, adopted by the Rushukulya River in Ganjam district, with 15 dolphins and eventually, Balasore, with 5 people.

The dolphin species sighted in the course of the state-wide census included the Irrawaddy, the Bottle Nostril and the Humpback.

 

Key information:

Dolphins have been included in Schedule I of the Indian Wild Life (Safety) Act 1972, in Appendix I of the Conference on Worldwide Commerce in Endangered Species (CITES), in Appendix II of the Conference on Migratory Species (CMS) and categorised as ‘Endangered’ on the Worldwide Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Pink Listing.

 

Sources: right down to earth.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Points associated to well being.

 

WHO points new worldwide normal for music units

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Key tips and significance of those tips.

 

Context: The World Well being Group (WHO) and the Worldwide Telecommunication Union (ITU) have issued a brand new worldwide normal for the manufacture and use of musical units.

The goal behind the transfer is to stop younger individuals from going deaf.

 

Amongst different issues, the usual recommends:

Sound allowance” perform: software program that tracks the extent and period of the consumer’s publicity to sound as a proportion used of a reference publicity.

Personalised profile: an individualized listening profile, based mostly on the consumer’s listening practices, which informs the consumer of how safely (or not) she or he has been listening and provides cues for motion based mostly on this info.

Quantity limiting choices: choices to restrict the quantity, together with automated quantity discount and parental quantity management.

Basic info: info and steerage to customers on protected listening practices, each by means of private audio units and for different leisure actions.

The WHO has advisable that governments and producers undertake the usual. It has additionally referred to as on civil society organisations, notably skilled associations that promote listening to care, to play a task in advocating for the usual.

 

What necessitated this?

  1. Almost 50% of individuals aged 12-35 years — or 1.1 billion younger individuals — are vulnerable to listening to loss resulting from extended and extreme publicity to loud sounds, together with music they take heed to via private audio units.
  2. Over 5 per cent of the world’s inhabitants — or 466 million individuals — has disabling listening to loss; impacting on their high quality of life. The bulk reside in low- and middle-income nations.
  3. It’s estimated that by 2050, over 900 million individuals — or 1 in each 10 individuals — could have disabling listening to loss. Listening to loss which isn’t addressed poses an annual international value of $750 billion. General, it’s steered that half of all instances of listening to loss might be prevented by way of public well being measures.

 

Sources: right down to earth.


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.

 

Oxytocin ban

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Oxytocin associated information.
  • For Mains: Why was it banned? Considerations related to the ban? What’s the best way out?

 

Context: Indian Medical Affiliation has stated Karnataka Antibiotics and Prescription drugs Ltd (KAPL) neither has the expertise nor the capability to deal with Oxytocin manufacturing.

 

What’s the difficulty?

The Delhi excessive courtroom had quashed the Centre’s December 14, 2018 notification, which had banned its sale by personal producers and retail chemists, saying the sale was allowed. Primarily, this meant that solely KAPL might produce the drug as there isn’t any different public sector enterprise doing so. Nevertheless, Delhi excessive courtroom quashed the amended order too. The central authorities moved Supreme Courtroom towards the Delhi excessive courtroom order.

 

What’s the priority now?

KAPL has stated bulk manufacturing of the drug would take three-four years. This is able to put lives of many pregnant ladies in danger as it might result in acute shortages.

With the ban, the federal government didn’t adequately weigh within the hazard of its order to the customers of oxytocin, nor contemplate the deleterious impact of potential restricted provide if manufacture is confined to at least one unit on pregnant ladies and younger moms.

 

What might be achieved?

Strict management on unlawful imports of the drug: A lot of the veterinary use comes from unlawful import of oxytocin from neighbouring nations. The misuse might be prevented by means of strict management in sale and finish use of the drug particularly prevention by way of clandestine channels.

 

About Oxytocin:

  1. Oxytocin has additionally been dubbed the hug hormone, cuddle chemical, ethical molecule, and the bliss hormone as a consequence of its results on conduct, together with its position in love and in feminine reproductive organic features in copy.
  2. Oxytocin is a hormone that’s made within the mind, within the hypothalamus. It’s transported to, and secreted by, the pituitary gland, which is situated on the base of the mind.
  3. It acts each as a hormone and as a mind neurotransmitter.
  4. The discharge of oxytocin by the pituitary gland acts to manage two feminine reproductive features: Childbirth and Breast-feeding.

 

Causes behind the ban are:

  1. Misuse in diary business: Oxytocin is a naturally-occurring hormone that causes uterine contractions throughout labour and helps new moms lactate. Nevertheless, the drug is misused within the dairy business the place livestock is injected with Oxytocin to make them launch milk at a time handy to farmers.
  2. Oxytocin can also be used to extend the dimensions of greens similar to pumpkins, watermelons, eggplants, gourds, and cucumbers.

 

Sources: right down to earth.


Paper three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Conservation, environmental air pollution and degradation, environmental impression evaluation.

 

Wasted effort: half of India’s waste-to-energy crops defunct

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Waste- to- energy- India’s potential, challenges current and measures to deal with these challenges.

 

Context: An evaluation by the Centre for Science and Setting has revealed that almost half of India’s waste-to-energy (WTE) crops, meant to transform non-biodegradable waste, are defunct. Additional, the nation’s incapability to segregate waste has resulted in even the prevailing crops working under capability.

 

Key findings:

  1. Since 1987, 15 WTE crops have been arrange throughout the nation. Nevertheless, seven of those crops have since shut down. Aside from Delhi, these embrace crops at Kanpur, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Vijayawada and Karimnagar.
  2. The important thing causes for closure are the crops’ incapability to deal with combined strong waste and the excessive value of electrical energy generated by them that renders it unattractive to energy corporations.
  3. This monitor report, nevertheless, has not stopped the federal government from betting huge on WTE. The NITI Aayog, as a part of the Swachh Bharat Mission, envisages 800 megawatt from WTE crops by 2018-19, which is 10 occasions the capability of all the prevailing WTE crops put collectively.
  4. It additionally proposes establishing a Waste-to-Power Company of India, which might assemble incineration crops by means of PPP fashions. At present, there are 40-odd WTE crops at numerous levels of development.

 

Causes for the inefficiency:

The elemental purpose (for the inefficiency of those crops) is the standard and composition of waste. MSW (municipal strong waste) in India has low calorific worth and excessive moisture content material. As most wastes despatched to the WTE crops are unsegregated, additionally they have excessive inert content material. These wastes are simply not appropriate for burning in these crops. To burn them, further gasoline is required which makes these crops costly to run.

 

Why Waste to Power?

Most wastes which are generated discover their method into land and water our bodies with out correct remedy, inflicting extreme water and air air pollution. The issues brought on by strong and liquid wastes may be considerably mitigated via the adoption of environment-friendly waste to power applied sciences that may permit remedy and processing of wastes earlier than their disposal.

  • The environmental advantages of waste to power, as an alternative choice to disposing of waste in landfills, are clear and compelling. Waste to power generates clear, dependable power from a renewable gasoline supply, thus decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, the combustion of which is a serious contributor to GHG emissions.
  • These measures would scale back the amount of wastes, generate a considerable amount of power from them, and drastically scale back air pollution of water and air, thereby providing numerous social and financial advantages that can’t simply be quantified.

 

A few of the strategic and monetary advantages from waste-to-energy enterprise are:

Profitability – If the suitable know-how is employed with optimum processes and all elements of waste are used to derive worth, waste to power could possibly be a worthwhile enterprise. When authorities incentives are factored in, the attractiveness of the enterprise will increase additional.

Authorities Incentives – The federal government of India already offers vital incentives for waste to power tasks, within the type of capital subsidies and feed in tariffs. With considerations on local weather change, waste administration and sanitation on the rise, the federal government incentives for this sector is simply set to extend in future.

Associated Alternatives – Success in municipal strong waste administration might result in alternatives in different waste reminiscent of sewage waste, industrial waste and unsafe waste. Relying on the know-how/route used for power restoration, eco-friendly and “inexperienced” co-products similar to charcoal, compost, nutrient wealthy digestate (a fertilizer) or bio-oil may be obtained. These co-product alternatives will allow the enterprise to broaden into these associated merchandise, demand for that are growing on a regular basis.

Rising Alternatives – With distributed waste administration and waste to power turning into essential priorities, alternatives exist for corporations to offer help providers like turnkey options. As well as, waste to power alternatives exist not simply in India however everywhere in the world. Thus, there might be vital worldwide enlargement prospects for Indian corporations, particularly enlargement into different Asian nations.

 

The expansion of this sector has been affected on account of the next limitations/ constraints:

  1. Waste-to-Power continues to be a brand new idea within the nation;
  2. A lot of the confirmed and business applied sciences in respect of city wastes are required to be imported;
  3. The prices of the tasks particularly based mostly on bio-methanation know-how are excessive as crucial gear for a venture is required to be imported.
  4. In view of low degree of compliance of MSW Guidelines 2000 by the Municipal Firms/ City Native Our bodies, segregated municipal strong waste is usually not obtainable on the plant website, which can result in non-availability of waste-to-energy crops.
  5. Lack of monetary assets with Municipal Firms/City Native Our bodies.
  6. Lack of conducive coverage tips from State Governments in respect of allotment of land, provide of rubbish and energy buy / evacuation amenities.

 

Sources: the hindu.

Mains Query: As per a medium time period proposal of Niti Ayog, the one viable answer to coping with the huge waste drawback in India is to incinerate the waste of go from waste to power. Do you agree with such a view? Talk about


Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. Essential Worldwide establishments, businesses and fora, their construction, mandate.

 

World Sustainable Improvement Summit

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: WSDS- key information and significance of the summit, about TERI.

 

Context: The World Sustainable Improvement Summit 2019 is being held in New Delhi. It’s organized by The Power and Assets Institute – TERI.

 

World Sustainable Improvement Summit:

  1. The World Sustainable Improvement Summit is the annual flagship occasion of The Power and Assets Institute (TERI).
  2. World Sustainable Improvement Summit is the only Summit on international points happening within the creating world.
  3. It supplies a platform for international leaders and practitioners to debate and deliberate over climatic problems with common significance.
  4. It strives to offer long-term options for the good thing about the worldwide group by assembling the world’s most enlightened leaders and thinkers on a single platform.
  5. It’s persevering with the legacy of Delhi Sustainable Improvement Summit (DSDS) which was initiated in 2001 with the goal of creating ‘sustainable improvement’ a globally shared objective.

 

The Power and Assets Institute – TERI:

The Power and Assets Institute (TERI) is a number one assume tank devoted to conducting analysis for sustainable improvement of India and the International South. TERI was established in 1974 as an info centre on power points. Nevertheless, over the next many years, it made a mark as a analysis institute, whose coverage and know-how options reworked individuals’s lives and the surroundings.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Information for Prelims:

 

Selenium:

Context: Scientists have discovered that nanoparticles of selenium, a vital micronutrient, can be utilized as an antibacterial agent. Scientists discovered that selenium nanoparticles, owing to their distinctive construction and properties, could also be simpler than antibiotics as they’ve a bigger floor space and subsequently could be extra in touch with the exterior setting.

Key details:

Selenium is discovered naturally in wheat, eggs, cheese, nuts and sea meals. It’s an antioxidant and immunity booster.