Insights Every day Present Affairs + PIB: 10 July 2019
Related articles from PIB:
GS Paper three:
- Points related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum help prices; Public Distribution System aims, functioning, limitations, revamping; problems with buffer shares and meals security; Know-how missions; economics of animal-rearing.
Nationwide Dairy Plan
What to review?
For prelims and mains: Authorities help for growing milk manufacturing within the nation by means of numerous schemes and key features of such schemes.
Context: Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying is implementing World Bank assisted National Dairy Plan – I in 18 States to help milk cooperatives and milk producer corporations along with breeding enchancment initiative.
Key options of the scheme:
- National Dairy Plan Part I (NDP I) is a Central Sector Scheme.
- Funding might be via a line of credit score from the Worldwide Improvement Affiliation (IDA), which along with the share of the Government of India will movement from DADF to NDDB and in turn to eligible Finish Implementing Businesses (EIAs).
- NDP I will concentrate on 18 major milk producing states specifically Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh which together account for over 90% of the country’s milk manufacturing.
- To help improve productiveness of milch animals and thereby improve milk production to satisfy the quickly rising demand for milk.
- To help provide rural milk producers with higher entry to the organised milk-processing sector.
Finish Implementation Businesses (EIAs) can be State Cooperative Dairy Federations; District Cooperative Milk Producers Unions; Cooperative form of enterprises similar to Producer Corporations; State Livestock Improvement Boards; Central Cattle Breeding Farms (CCBF), Central Frozen Semen Manufacturing and Coaching Institute (CFSP&TI), Regional Stations for Forage Manufacturing and Demonstration (RSFP&D); Registered Societies/ Trusts (NGOs); Section 25 Corporations, subsidiaries of statutory bodies, ICAR Institutes and Veterinary/ Dairy Institutes/Universities that meet the eligibility criteria for each exercise as could also be decided by the National Steering Committee (NSC).
India’s milk production increased from 165.40 MMT in 2016-17 to 176.35 MMT in 2017-18, a progress fee of 6.62 per cent.
The nation ranks first in international milk manufacturing.
The per capita availability of milk in India during 2017-18 was 375 gm/day and by 2023-24, it is estimated to increase to 592 gm/day.
Mains Question: In the course of the previous three years, India has outpaced the global milk production with an annual progress fee of 5.53% compared with the 2.09% achieved globally. Look at how is it made attainable.
GS Paper 1:
- Points related to ladies.
Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana
What to review?
For prelims and mains: key options, aims and significance of the programme, points associated to feminization of agriculture.
Context: In keeping with the provisions of National Coverage for Farmers (NPF) (2007), the Department of Rural Improvement, Ministry of Rural Improvement is implementing a programme solely for ladies farmers specifically, Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP).
Funding help to the tune of up to 60% (90% for North Japanese States) for such tasks is offered by the Authorities of India.
About Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana:
- The “Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana” (MKSP), a sub element of the Deendayal Antodaya Yojana-NRLM (DAY-NRLM) seeks to enhance the present standing of girls in Agriculture, and to reinforce the opportunities out there to empower her.
- MKSP acknowledges the id of “Mahila” as “Kisan” and strives to construct the capability of girls in the area of agro-ecologically sustainable practices.
- It has a clear imaginative and prescient to succeed in out to the poorest of poor households and increase the portfolio of actions at present dealt with by the Mahila Kisan.
- The main target of MKSP is on capacitating smallholders to undertake sustainable local weather resilient agro-ecology and ultimately create a pool of skilled group professionals. Its goal is to strengthen smallholder agriculture via promotion of sustainable agriculture practices similar to Group Managed Sustainable Agriculture (CMSA), Non Pesticide Administration (NPM), Zero Price range Pure Farming (ZBNF), Pashu-Sakhi model for doorstep animal care providers, Sustainable regeneration and harvesting of Non-Timber Forest Produce.
Need for feminization of agriculture:
Rural ladies type the most efficient work drive within the financial system of majority of the creating nations including India. Greater than 80% of rural ladies are engaged in agriculture activities for his or her livelihoods. About 20 per cent of farm livelihoods are feminine headed resulting from widowhood, desertion, or male emigration. Agriculture help system in India strengthens the exclusion of girls from their entitlements as agriculture staff and cultivators. A lot of the women-headed households aren’t capable of entry extension providers, farmers help institutions and manufacturing belongings like seed, water, credit, subsidy and so forth. As agricultural staff, ladies are paid decrease wage than males.
Mains Question: Talk about the problems faced by ladies farmers in India. Also talk about how those problems might be solved.
Relevant articles from numerous news sources:
GS Paper 3:
- Awareness in area.
NASA to launch Dragonfly
What to review?
For prelims and mains: key goals, significance of the mission and related details on Titan.
Context: NASA plans to launch an unmanned nuclear-powered drone, Dragonfly as early as 2026 to search for life on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.
- Dragonfly goals to search for indicators of microbial alien life on Saturn’s moon Titan, while navigating its earth-like gravity and aerodynamics within the process.
- The mission will succeed NASA’s Cassini probe, which ended its 13-year mission orbiting Saturn in September 2017 by diving into Saturn’s environment.
Dragonfly mission is part of NASA’s New Frontiers program, which includes a collection of area exploration missions, that are being carried out with the purpose of researching a number of of the Photo voltaic System our bodies, together with the dwarf planet Pluto.
- The New Frontiers programme additionally consists of Pluto probe New Horizons, Jupiter probe Juno and OSIRIS-Rex asteroid mission.
- The Dragonfly mission replaces a previously discontinued idea venture referred to as Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM), which required a balloon probe to circumnavigate Titan.
Why research Titan?
Titan is an analog to the very early Earth, and may present clues to how life might have arisen on our planet.
Titan is bigger than the planet Mercury and is the second largest moon in our solar system.
As it orbits Saturn, it is about 886 million miles (1.4 billion kilometers) away from the Solar, about 10 occasions farther than Earth. Because it’s so far from the Sun, its floor temperature is around -290 levels Fahrenheit (-179 levels Celsius). Its surface strain can also be 50 % greater than Earth’s.
Aims of the mission:
- Explore numerous environments from organic dunes to the floor of an impression crater the place liquid water and sophisticated natural materials key to life as soon as existed together for probably tens of hundreds of years.
- Research how far prebiotic chemistry might have progressed.
- Investigate the moon’s atmospheric and floor properties and its subsurface ocean and liquid reservoirs.
- Search for chemical evidence of previous or extant life.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper three:
- Indian Financial system and points referring to planning, mobilization of assets, progress, improvement and employment.
What to review?
For prelims: Key features and overview of Basel norms.
For mains: Significance, want for and challenges in implementation.
Context: An evaluation of compliance with Basel Norms was lately carried out by the Regulatory Consistency Evaluation Programme (RCAP). RCAP is a part of the Basel committee.
The evaluation targeted on the completeness and consistency of the domestic laws in drive on 7 June 2019, as applied to business banks in India, with the Basel giant exposures framework.
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) is the primary international commonplace setter for the prudential regulation of banks, has 45 members, comprising central banks and bank supervisors from 28 jurisdictions.
- The Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) norms on giant exposures for banks aren’t solely compliant with the Basel necessities, they’re stricter in some areas as nicely.
- This is highest potential grade. In another respects, the Indian laws are stricter than the Basel giant exposures framework. For example, banks’ exposures to international systemically necessary banks are subject to stricter limits, according to the letter and spirit of the Basel Tips, and the scope of software of the Indian requirements is wider than simply the internationally lively banks coated by the Basel framework.
What are Basel tips?
Basel tips discuss with broad supervisory standards formulated by group of central banks- referred to as the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS). The set of settlement by the BCBS, which primarily focuses on dangers to banks and the monetary system are referred to as Basel accord.
Basel is a metropolis in Switzerland which can also be the headquarters of Bureau of Worldwide Settlement (BIS).
The aim of the accords is to ensure that financial establishments have sufficient capital on account to satisfy obligations and take in sudden losses.
Introduced in 1988.
Targeted virtually completely on credit danger, it outlined capital and construction of danger weights for banks.
The minimal capital requirement was fastened at 8% of risk-weighted belongings (RWA).
India adopted Basel 1 tips in 1999.
Revealed in 2004.
The guidelines have been based mostly on three parameters:
- Banks ought to keep a minimum capital adequacy requirement of eight% of danger belongings.
- Banks have been needed to develop and use higher danger administration methods in monitoring and managing all of the three forms of dangers that’s credit score and increased disclosure necessities. The three kinds of danger are- operational danger, market danger, capital danger.
- Banks have to obligatory disclose their danger publicity to the central bank.
In 2010, Basel III tips have been released. These tips have been launched in response to the financial crisis of 2008.
Basel III norms goal at making most banking actions akin to their trading ebook actions extra capital-intensive.
The rules purpose to promote a extra resilient banking system by focusing on 4 very important banking parameters viz. capital, leverage, funding and liquidity.
Presently Indian banking system follows Basel II norms.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 2:
Essential Worldwide establishments, businesses and fora, their construction, mandate.
Port integrity marketing campaign
What to review?
For prelims and mains: features and significance of the cam, about MACN.
Context: Maritime Anti-Corruption Network begins port integrity campaign in India.
The marketing campaign, which aims to scale back and (in the long term) get rid of integrity issues and bottlenecks to commerce throughout operations in Indian ports, is a collective motion of MACN, the Authorities of India, worldwide organizations, and local business stakeholders.
The primary activities of the campaign embrace implementation of integrity coaching for port officers and the establishment of clear escalation and reporting processes.
Maritime Anti-Corruption Community (MACN) is a worldwide enterprise community of over 110 corporations working to deal with corruption within the maritime business.
Established in 2011 by a small group of dedicated maritime corporations.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper 2:
Statutory, regulatory and numerous quasi-judicial bodies.
Human Rights courts
What to review?
For prelims and mains: human rights courts- provision close to its institution, composition, aims and why there’s delay in establishing of such courts?
Context: The Supreme Courtroom has sought a response from the Central authorities, the States and the Union Territories on the extended delay for over a quarter of a century to determine unique human rights courts in each district and appointing particular public prosecutors in them.
What’s the difficulty?
The Human Rights Act had referred to as for the establishment of particular courts in each district to conduct speedy trial of offences arising out of violation and abuse of human rights.
Part 30 of the Act envisages that a State authorities, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of Excessive Courtroom, by notification, specify for every district a courtroom of session as a courtroom of human rights for the speedy trial of violation of rights. Whereas Section 31 of the Act supplies the State authorities to specify and appoint a special public prosecutor in that courtroom.
To uphold and shield the essential and elementary rights of a person it is an indispensable obligation upon the State to offer reasonably priced, efficient and speedy trial of offences related to violation of human rights which may only be achieved by establishing special courts in every district as offered underneath the Act.
From 2001 to 2010, the National Human Rights Fee (NHRC) recorded that 14,231 i.e. four.33 persons died in police and judicial custody within the nation. This consists of 1,504 deaths in police custody and 12,727 deaths in judicial custody from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010, and a big majority of those deaths being a direct consequence of torture in custody, the petition stated.
India Human Rights Report 2018 threw mild on numerous rights violations resembling police brutality, torture and excess custodial and encounters deaths, horrible circumstances in prisons and detention centres, arbitrary arrests and illegal detention, denial of truthful public trial.
Sources: the Hindu.
Details for prelims:
India-Russia Strategic Financial Dialogue:
Why in Information? Second India-Russia Strategic Financial Dialogue is being held.
The IRSED was established following a bilateral Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between NITI Aayog and the Ministry of Economic Improvement of the Russian Federation through the 19th edition of the Annual India-Russia Bilateral Summit, which was held on October 5, 2018, in New Delhi.
The First India-Russia Strategic Financial Dialogue was held in St. Petersburg in 2018.
What’s it? It’s an amplifying system imitating the excitement of a swarm of honey bees to keep wild elephants away from railway tracks. It is a distinctive technique adopted by Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR).
Why in information? It has earned the perfect innovation award in Indian Railways for the 2018-19 fiscal.
What is it? It’s a three- yr street map for medium time period objective to be achieved for enhancing regulation, supervision of RBI. It was just lately finalised by the RBI. This medium-term technique is in keeping with International central banks’ plan to strengthen regulatory and supervisory mechanism.
Green tax on aircraft tickets:
Context: France to impose green tax on aircraft tickets from 2020.
The brand new measure is predicted to usher in some €182 million a yr which might be invested in greener transport infrastructures, notably rail. It can only be utilized on outgoing flights and never these flying into the nation.
Summaries of necessary Editorials:
The GM cotton conundrum:
Context: A number of Haryana farmers have defied a authorities restriction towards sowing banned HT Bt Cotton in Hisar. Nevertheless, the federal government is decided to curb its spread.
What is HT Bt cotton?
Herbicide-tolerant Bt (HT Bt) Cotton is genetically modified crop of unapproved genes which is not permissible in India.
Technically, herbicide is sort of a poison which is used to destroy undesirable vegetation.
The method within the HT Bt Cotton makes the crop immune to herbicide following modification in genes of the seeds. Normally, when an herbicide is sprayed, then it destroys unwanted vegetation along with causing harm the cotton crop additionally. So, farmers use much less herbicide of their fields. But with the introduction of HT Bt Cotton, there gained’t be any influence of herbicide on the cotton crop whereas the unwanted vegetation shall be destroyed. It will result in more use of chemical compounds in fields causing hurt to other crops.
What’s the extent of HT Bt Cotton in India?
Within the absence of government approval, manufacturing of HT Bt seed is prohibited, however farmers say it’s out there in those states the place its being grown defying the legal guidelines.
A piece of farmers have began sowing its seeds notably in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for the past few years.
A authorities panel had found that the HT Bt Cotton was grown in 15 per cent of the areas in these states during 2017-18 while this proportion was 5 per cent for Punjab.
Why is it most popular by the farmers?
In response to supporters of HT Bt Cotton, its most popular to scale back the price of labour as de-weeding is a particularly labour intensive exercise involving 40 per cent of the whole value for rising cotton.
The farmers have felt the influence of HT Bt Cotton when it comes to lower prices and lowered crop losses leading to greater production and revenue.
Bt crops in India:
Indian authorities in 2010 had imposed a moratorium, leaving Bt Cotton as the only genetically modified crop permitted for cultivation in the nation.
What do the opponents of HT Bt Cotton say?
Such seeds will cause extra illnesses amongst humans and animals aside from inflicting injury to the surroundings.
Do we’d like GM crops?
Sure and why?
- Greater crop yields.
- Lowered farm costs.
- Elevated farm revenue.
- Improvement in well being and the setting.
No and why?
Lack of readability: It is clear that the know-how of genetic engineering is an evolving one and there’s much, especially on its influence on human well being and surroundings that’s but to be understood properly. The scientific group itself appears uncertain about this.
While there are numerous in this group who feel that the benefits outweigh the risks, others point to the irreversibility of this know-how and uncontrollability of the Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) once launched in the ecosystem. Hence, they advocate a precautionary strategy in the direction of any open launch of GMOs.
Menace to home crops: One of the considerations raised strongly by these opposing GM crops in India is that many necessary crops like rice, brinjal, and mustard, amongst others, originated here, and introducing genetically modified variations of those crops could possibly be a serious menace to the huge number of home and wild varieties of these crops.
In reality, globally, there is a clear view that GM crops should not be launched in centres of origin and variety. India also has mega biodiversity hotspots just like the Japanese Himalayas and the Western Ghats which are wealthy in biodiversity yet ecologically very sensitive. Therefore it is going to only be prudent for us to watch out earlier than we leap on to the bandwagon of any know-how.
There’s also a potential for pests to evolve resistance to the toxins produced by GM crops and the danger of those toxins affecting nontarget organisms. There’s also the danger of unintentionally introducing allergens and other anti-nutrition elements in meals.