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Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 10 August 2019

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Insights Day by day Current Affairs + PIB: 10 August 2019


Related articles from PIB:

GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. Features and duties of the Union and the States, points and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to native levels and challenges therein.

 

Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs

 

What to review?

For prelims and mains: COC for Politicians- Want, earlier efforts on this regard, challenges and significance.

 

Context: Vice President Venkaiah Naidu has sought a consensus on a Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs. This has been a longstanding concern — progress has been sluggish and uneven, nevertheless.

A Code of Conduct for members of Rajya Sabha has been in pressure since 2005; there isn’t any such code for Lok Sabha.

 

Background:

  1. Code of conduct for top constitutional functionaries and representatives of the individuals have been discussed for lengthy. A code for Union ministers was adopted in 1964, and state governments have been advised to undertake it as nicely.
  2. A conference of Chief Justices in 1999 resolved to undertake a code of conduct for judges of the Supreme Courtroom and Excessive Courts — this 15-point ‘Re-instatement of Values in Judicial Life’ really helpful that serving judges ought to keep an air of “aloofness” of their official and private lives.
  3. Within the case of MPs, the first step was the structure of Parliamentary Standing Committees on Ethics in each Homes. The Committee in Rajya Sabha was inaugurated by Chairman Okay R Narayanan on Might 30, 1997 “to oversee the moral and ethical conduct of the Members and to examine the instances referred to it on the subject of ethical and other misconduct of Members”.

 

Why do We Need a Code of Conduct For Politicians?

Elections in India are sometimes remembered for personal attacks, snide remarks and hate speeches made on the expense of taking political discourse to its nadir.

In a bid to say their superiority over the remaining, some political leaders go overboard and blur the line between private and non-private lives. Some even threaten voters with dire penalties if they don’t seem to be voted to power.

Subsequently, to make sure civility in political speeches and expressions, establishing code of conduct for politicians is obligatory.

 

Briefly, Code of Conduct for Politicians is required primarily because of the next causes:

  1. The politicians representing their constituencies in the Parliament have again and again brought ill-repute to the institution with their incivility.
  2. Creating ruckus within the Parliament; making unacceptable remarks and disrupting the Home proceedings are a few of the main allegations they face.
  3. Tenure of a few of the politicians can also be fraught with extreme costs of impropriety.
  4. It has been long since a parliamentary panel had advisable a 14-point code of conduct that considerably outlines what’s anticipated from the politicians.

 

Key suggestions:

  1. Prohibit MPs from misusing the facility and immunities they get.
  2. An MP should avoid battle between a personal and a public curiosity.
  3. No parliamentarian must be allowed to vote on those questions within the Home, during which he/she has a vested curiosity.
  4. Amend the Structure to make sure a minimal of 110 days of sitting in a legislature having greater than 100 members, and 90-50 days of sitting in Homes with lower than 100 members depending on the dimensions of the State involved.
  5. The filing by legislators of a press release of revenue, belongings and liabilities, and a sign of modifications in these figures over time.
  6. Punishment of members by admonition, reprimand, censure or withdrawal from the Home in case of violations or breach of the code of conduct.
  7. Automated suspension from the Home of any member concerned in offences of grave misconduct.

 

Need of the hour:

There’s a lot more that the Election Commission should do to make it troublesome for the errant politicians. Its duty doesn’t ends with the submitting of an FIR towards a candidate who is violating code of conduct. It ought to direct political parties to withdraw such candidates.

Stronger actions reminiscent of derecognizing political parties and different powers must be exercised for the bigger curiosity of the democracy.

 

Conclusion:

A code of conduct for legislators is completely important at this level of time, when coalition Governments mean growing and extra intense activity inside the partitions of the legislatures.

 

Elsewhere:

  1. In the UK, a code of conduct for MPs was “ready pursuant to the Decision of the Home of 19 July 1995”.
  2. The Canadian House of Commons has a Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner with powers to examine violations of the Conflict of Curiosity Code at the request of another Member or by Decision of the Home or on his personal initiative.
  3. Germany has had a Code of Conduct for members of the Bundestag since 1972.
  4. The US has had a Code since 1968.
  5. Pakistan has a Code of Conduct for members of the Senate.

 

Mains Query: “Political events should evolve a consensus on the code of conduct for his or her members both contained in the Parliament and out of it, otherwise, individuals may quickly lose faith in our political processes and institutions.” Remark. 


GS Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes.

 

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: The scheme- features, significance, need and potential?

 

Context: Registration opens for PM Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana.

Purpose: To enhance the lifetime of small and marginal farmers of the nation.

 

Salient features of the scheme:

(Observe: The record is complete, but necessary from examination viewpoint).

  1. The scheme is voluntary and contributory for farmers within the entry age group of 18 to 40 years.
  2. A month-to-month pension of Rs. 3000/– shall be offered to them on attaining the age of 60 years.
  3. The farmers should make a monthly contribution of Rs.55 to Rs.200, depending on their age of entry, in the Pension Fund until they attain the retirement date i.e. the age of 60 years.
  4. The Central Government may even make an equal contribution of the same amount within the pension fund.
  5. The spouse can also be eligible to get a separate pension of Rs.3000/- upon making separate contributions to the Fund.
  6. The Life Insurance coverage Company of India (LIC) shall be the Pension Fund Manager and liable for Pension pay out.
  7. In case of dying of the farmer earlier than retirement date, the spouse might continue in the scheme by paying the remaining contributions until the remaining age of the deceased farmer.
  8. If the spouse does not want to proceed, the entire contribution made by the farmer together with curiosity might be paid to the spouse.
  9. If there isn’t any partner, then complete contribution along with curiosity will probably be paid to the nominee.
  10. If the farmer dies after the retirement date, the spouse will obtain 50% of the pension as Family Pension.
  11. After the demise of each the farmer and the partner, the accrued corpus shall be credited again to the Pension Fund.
  12. The beneficiaries might choose voluntarily to exit the Scheme after a minimal period of 5 years of normal contributions.
  13. On exit, their complete contribution shall be returned by LIC with an curiosity equal to prevailing saving financial institution charges.
  14. The farmers, who’re also beneficiaries of PM-Kisan Scheme, could have the option to allow their contribution debited from the good thing about that Scheme immediately.
  15. In case of default in making regular contributions, the beneficiaries are allowed to regularize the contributions by paying the outstanding dues together with prescribed curiosity.

 

Need for and Significance of the scheme:

It’s anticipated that a minimum of 10 crore labourers and staff in the unorganised sector will avail the good thing about the scheme inside next 5 years making it one of the largest pension schemes of the world.


GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

  1. Points associated to well being.

Rotavirus

 

What to review?

For prelims and mains: Rotavirus- signs, transmission and vaccines.

 

Context: The Well being Ministry has drawn an formidable plan beneath the 100 days agenda of the newly elected authorities, wherein it has been determined to offer Rotavirus vaccine to each baby throughout all States and Union Territories by September, 2019.

The vaccine has been developed indigenously beneath a public-private partnership by the ministries of science and know-how and well being and family welfare.

 

About Rotavirus:

Rotavirus is a number one explanation for extreme diarrhoea and dying among youngsters less than 5 years of age.

It’s answerable for round 10% of complete baby mortality yearly.

 

Rotavirus-Signs and Symptoms:

  1. Youngsters with a rotavirus an infection have fever, nausea, and vomiting, typically adopted by stomach cramps and frequent, watery diarrhea.
  2. Youngsters may have a cough and runny nostril.
  3. Typically the diarrhea that accompanies a rotavirus infection is so extreme that it will possibly shortly lead to dehydration.
  4. As with all viruses, although, some rotavirus infections trigger few or no signs, particularly in adults.

 

Transmission:

Rotavirus is transmitted by the faecal-oral route, by way of contact with contaminated arms, surfaces and objects, and probably by the respiratory route. Viral diarrhea is very contagious.

 

Background:

Out of all the causes of diarrhoea, rotavirus is a leading explanation for diarrhoea in youngsters less than 5 years of age. Rotavirus diarrhoea presents in comparable manner like another diarrhoea however can mainly be prevented by means of rotavirus vaccination. Other diarrhoea may be prevented by way of common measures like good hygiene, frequent hand washing, protected water and protected meals consumption, unique breastfeeding and vitamin A supplementation.


GS Paper 3:

Subjects coated:

Indigenization of know-how and creating new know-how.

 

ICAT – A World Class Automotive Testing Centre

 

What to review?

For prelims and mains: About ICAT and NATRiP.

 

Why in information? third Worldwide Electrical Car (EV) Conclave was just lately held at the International Centre for Automotive Know-how (ICAT) in Manesar, Gurugram.

The Conclave was held to create a knowledge-sharing platform to ensure stream of data at all ranges in the automotive sector.

 

About ICAT Manesar:

Worldwide Centre for Automotive Know-how (ICAT) Manesar is a division of NATRIP Implementation Society (NATIS) underneath the Division of Heavy Industries, India.

 

Features:

  1. It supplies providers for testing, validation, design and homologation of all classes of automobiles.
  2. It assists the automotive business in adopting leading edge applied sciences in car analysis and element improvement to ensure reliability, durability and compliance to the present and future laws.

 

National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Undertaking (NATRiP):

The Challenge aims at creating core international competencies in Automotive sector in India and facilitate seamless integration of Indian Automotive business with the world as additionally to place the nation prominently on the global automotive map.


 

Relevant articles from numerous information sources:

GS Paper three:

Subjects coated:

  1. Conservation associated points.

 

Samagra Shiksha-Jal Suraksha

 

What to review?

For prelims: Key options of the campaign.

For mains: Water conservation- issues, challenges and wish of the hour.

 

 

Context: ‘Samagra Shiksha-Jal Suraksha’ Drive has been launched by the Department of Faculty Schooling & Literacy, HRD Ministry to create awareness about water conservation amongst all faculty college students in the nation.

 

5 Main Goals:

  1. To teach college students study conservation of water.
  2. To sensitize College students concerning the impression of shortage of water.
  3. To empower College students to study to protect the natural sources of water.
  4. To assist every Scholar to save lots of no less than one litre of water per day.
  5. To encourage Students in the direction of considered use and minimum wastage of water at residence and faculty degree.

 

Goal:

  1. One Scholar – One Day – Save One Litre Water.
  2. One Scholar – One Yr – Save 365 Litres Water.
  3. One Scholar – 10 Years – Save 3650 Litres Water.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated: 

Authorities insurance policies and interventions for improvement in numerous sectors and points arising out of their design and implementation.

 

World Biofuel day

 

What to review?

For Prelims: World Biofuel Day- key details.

For Mains: Significance of Biofuels and government initiatives on this regard.

 

Context: World Biofuel Day is noticed every year on 10th August.

Goal: to create awareness concerning the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative choice to typical fossil fuels and to spotlight the varied efforts made by the Authorities in the biofuel sector.

Theme 2019: ‘Production of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil (UCO)’.

 

Why August 10?

On today in 1893, Sir Rudolph Diesel (inventor of the diesel engine) for the primary time successfully ran mechanical engine with Peanut Oil.

His analysis experiment had predicted that vegetable oil goes to exchange the fossil fuels within the subsequent century to gasoline totally different mechanical engines. Thus to mark this extraordinary achievement, World Biofuel Day is noticed every year on 10th August.

 

Authorities of India initiatives to promote using Biofuels:

Since 2014, the Authorities of India has taken a lot of initiatives to extend blending of biofuels.

  1. The key interventions embrace administrative worth mechanism for ethanol, simplifying the procurement procedures of OMCs, amending the provisions of Industries (Improvement & Regulation) Act, 1951 and enabling lignocellulosic route for ethanol procurement.
  2. The Government permitted the Nationwide Coverage on Biofuels-2018 in June 2018. The coverage has the target of reaching 20% ethanol-blending and 5% biodiesel-blending by the yr 2030. 
  3. Amongst different things, the coverage expands the scope of feedstock for ethanol manufacturing and has offered for incentives for production of superior biofuels.
  4. The Government has additionally increased the worth of C-heavy molasses-based ethanol.

 

Outcomes:

  1. These interventions of the Authorities of India have shown constructive outcomes.
  2. Ethanol blending in petrol has elevated from 38 crore litres in the ethanol supply yr 2013-14 to an estimated 141 crore litres within the ethanol supply yr 2017-18.
  3. Bio-diesel blending within the nation began from 10th August, 2015 and in the yr 2018-19, Oil Advertising Corporations have allotted 7.6 crore litres of biodiesel.
  4. Oil PSUs are also planning to set up 12 Second Era (2G) Bio-refineries to reinforce ethanol supply and handle environmental points arising out of burning of agricultural biomass.

 

Classification of Biofuels:

1st era biofuels are also referred to as typical biofuels. They’re made out of issues like sugar, starch, or vegetable oil. Notice that these are all meals merchandise. Any biofuel comprised of a feedstock that can be consumed as a human meals is taken into account a first era biofuel.

2nd era biofuels are produced from sustainable feedstock. The sustainability of a feedstock is outlined by its availability, its impression on greenhouse fuel emissions, its impression on land use, and by its potential to threaten the meals provide. No second era biofuel can also be a food crop, though sure meals products can turn into second era fuels when they’re not useful for consumption. Second era biofuels are sometimes referred to as “advanced biofuels.”

3rd era biofuels are biofuel derived from algae. These biofuels are given their very own separate class due to their unique production mechanism and their potential to mitigate a lot of the drawbacks of 1st and 2nd era biofuels.

 

Sources: the Hindu.

 

Mains Query: Biofuels hold large potential for India’s future and current power wants, critically analyse whether or not the nationwide policy on biofuels is the step in the appropriate course to help India unlock its biofuel potential? 


GS Paper 2:

Subjects coated:

Effect of insurance policies and politics of developed and creating nations on India’s pursuits, Indian diaspora.

 

What is Simla Agreement?

 

What to review?

For prelims and mains: Simla agreement- origin, influence and outcomes, has it been successful?

 

Context: United Nations Secretary-Common António Guterres has expressed concern over the state of affairs in Jammu and Kashmir. Referring to the Simla Agreement, which was signed by India and Pakistan in 1972, Guterres stated the “ultimate standing of J&Okay is to be settled by peaceable means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations”.

 

What is Simla Agreement and why was it signed?

The Simla Settlement was signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 2 July 1972, following a full-blown conflict between India and Pakistan in 1971.

The Simla Agreement was “far more than a peace treaty looking for to reverse the results of the 1971 struggle (i.e. to bring about withdrawals of troops and an trade of PoWs).” It was a comprehensive blue print for good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan.

Beneath the Simla Settlement each nations undertook to abjure conflict and confrontation which had marred relations up to now, and to work in the direction of the establishment of durable peace, friendship and cooperation.

The two nations not solely agreed to place an end to “conflict and confrontation” but in addition work for the “promotion of a pleasant and harmonious relationship and the institution of sturdy peace in the sub-continent, in order that both nations might henceforth dedicate their assets and energies to the pressing speak of advancing the welfare of their peoples.”

 

How was this to be achieved?

To be able to achieve this objective, each the governments agreed that that the rules and functions of the Charter of the United Nations would govern bilateral relations and variations can be resolved by “peaceful means by means of bilateral negotiations or by another peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them.” 

Relating to Jammu and Kashmir, the two sides had agreed that the road of management “resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be revered by each side without prejudice to the recognized place of either aspect. Neither aspect shall seek to alter it unilaterally, regardless of mutual differences and authorized interpretations. Each side additional undertake to chorus from the menace or using drive in violation of this Line.”

Each governments had additionally agreed that their respective Heads would meet again at a “mutually handy time in the future the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and preparations for the establishment of sturdy peace and normalization of relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of conflict and civilian internees, a last settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.”

 

India had three main goals at Shimla:

  1. First, an enduring answer to the Kashmir difficulty or, failing that, an settlement that may constrain Pakistan from involving third parties in discussions about the way forward for Kashmir. 
  2. Second, it was hoped that the Agreement would permit for a new beginning in relations with Pakistanbased upon Pakistan’s acceptance of the brand new stability of power.
  3. Third, it left open the potential of attaining both these aims with out pushing Pakistan to the wall and creating a revanchist anti-India regime.

 

Sources: the Hindu.


 

Information for prelims:

 

Gogabeel is Bihar’s first group reserve:

Gogabeel, an ox-bow lake in Bihar’s Katihar district, has been declared as the state’s first ‘Group Reserve’.

Gogabeel is shaped from the move of the rivers Mahananda and Kankhar within the north and the Ganga in the south and east. It is the fifteenth Protected Space (PA) in Bihar.