CURRENT AFFAIRS PIB tech

Insights Daily Current Affairs + PIB: 06 February 2019

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Insights Every day Present Affairs + PIB: 06 February 2019


Related Articles from PIB:

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for the safety of weak sections of the society.

 

Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY)

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Key options of RVY and about ALIMCO.
  • For Mains: Significance of the programme and comparable insurance policies for assistance from previous aged.

 

Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana:

The Scheme goals at offering Senior Residents, belonging to BPL class and affected by any of the age associated incapacity/infirmity Low imaginative and prescient, Listening to impairment, Lack of tooth and Locomotor incapacity, with such assisted-living units which may restore close to normalcy of their bodily features, overcoming the incapacity/infirmity manifested.

  1. This can be a Central Sector Scheme, absolutely funded by the Central Authorities. The expenditure for implementation of the scheme will probably be met from the “Senior Residents’ Welfare Fund“.
  2. Underneath the scheme, freed from value distribution of the units, commensurate with the extent of incapacity/infirmity that’s manifested among the many eligible senior residents will happen.
  3. In case of a number of disabilities/infirmities manifested in the identical individual, the assistive units can be given in respect of every incapacity/impairment.
  4. Beneficiaries in every district can be recognized by the State Governments/UT Administrations by way of a Committee chaired by the Deputy Commissioner/District Collector.
  5. So far as potential, 30% of the beneficiaries in every district shall be ladies.

 

Method forward:

With greater than 70% of the 104 million aged dwelling within the rural hinterland, any critical initiative to enhance the lot of senior residents should incorporate satisfactory budgetary help for social welfare spending on the related programmes.

With the variety of the aged in India set to surge by 2050 to virtually 300 million, or a few fifth of the inhabitants, governments have to make extra complete efforts to deal with the issues of aged.

Mains Query: Talk about the options and prospects of current insurance policies meant to offer higher social and financial safety to India’s rising inhabitants of senior residents.

 


Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for the safety of weak sections of the society.

 

Asia LPG Summit

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: About Asia LPG summit, WLPGA.
  • For Mains: PMUY- options, significance and efficiency evaluation.

 

Context: 2nd version of the Asia LPG Summit is being held in New Delhi.

The summit is being organized by the World LPG Affiliation (WLPGA) in affiliation with main Indian public-sector oil corporations (OMCs) Indian Oil, Hindustan Petroleum, and Bharat Petroleum.

Goals of the summit:

  1. The summit will supply a singular alternative to the worldwide LPG business to work together with improvement businesses, NGOs and non-profit organizations who’ve facilitated last-mile entry to LPG for the beneficiaries.
  2. The summit will even deliver collectively academia and personal sector to change their views on using LPG and the way pathbreaking initiatives corresponding to ‘Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana’ can convey exceptional socio-economic transformation.

 

About World LPG Affiliation:

The World LPG Affiliation (WLPGA) is the authoritative international voice for the liquefied petroleum fuel (LPG) business and the worldwide business affiliation which represents the pursuits of the LPG business globally.

The WLPGA promotes using LPG to foster a cleaner, more healthy and extra affluent world.

  • With over 200 members and presence in additional than 125 nations, the WLPGA represents the pursuits of personal and public corporations from your complete LPG worth chain underneath one umbrella.
  • The WLPGA supplies a platform for the trade of greatest practices, details and figures amongst its members.
  • The Affiliation commonly organises interactive conferences between technical specialists, members and key stakeholders to show the advantages of LPG.

The WLPGA was formally granted Consultative Standing with the United Nations Financial and Social Council in 1989. Publications similar to its Annual Statistical Evaluation have grow to be LPG business references.


Paper 1 and a couple of:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Ladies associated points.
  2. Inhabitants and related points, poverty and developmental points, urbanization, their issues and their cures.
  3. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes; mechanisms, legal guidelines, establishments and our bodies constituted for the safety and betterment of those weak sections.

Protected Metropolis challenge

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Key options, significance and the necessity for protected metropolis venture.

 

Context: Empowered Committee of Officers for Nirbhaya funds scheme has permitted pilot Protected Metropolis tasks in eight chosen metropolitan cities, specifically, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Lucknow with a view to offer security to ladies in public locations.

The challenge can be carried out as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with Centre and State sharing the funding in 60:40 ratio.

 

The most important elements of the Protected Metropolis undertaking embrace, inter-alia:

  1. Establishing an Built-in Sensible Management Room;
  2. Establishing Pink Out-posts (solely administered by Ladies police) for facilitating ease of submitting grievance by ladies;
  3. Pink Patrols of Ladies police;
  4. Establishing Ladies Assist Desks in all Police Stations with Counsellors;
  5. Augmentation of present Asha Jyoti Kendra;
  6. Implementing Security measures in buses, together with Cameras;
  7. Enhancing Road Lighting in recognized Scorching Spot areas;
  8. Establishing Pink Bogs;
  9. Integration of Ladies power-help line with single Emergency quantity.

Paper 2:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Welfare schemes for weak sections of the inhabitants by the Centre and States and the efficiency of those schemes; mechanisms, legal guidelines, establishments and our bodies constituted for the safety and betterment of those weak sections.

 

Sentinelese Tribe:

 

What to review?

  • For Prelims: Who’re Sentinelese? Geographical location of North Sentinel Island.
  • For Mains: Why are they weak, what must be carried out and the way current strikes by the federal government is affecting their elementary and ethical rights?

 

Context: The Authorities has promulgated numerous legal guidelines/laws every now and then to make sure that the rights and well-being of the Sentinelese are safeguarded.

 

Steps taken to make sure the safety of Sentinelese:

  1. The whole North Sentinel Island together with 5 km coastal sea from excessive water mark is notified as tribal reserve.
  2. The Authorities respects their lifestyle fashion, subsequently, has adopted an ‘eyes-on and hands-off’ apply to guard and safeguard the Sentinelese tribe.
  3. A protocol of circumnavigation of the North Sentinel Island has been notified. The ships and aircrafts of Coast Guard and boats of Marine Police make sorties round North Sentinel to maintain surveillance.

 

They’ve been protected beneath:

  1. A &N Islands (PAT) Regulation 1956.
  2. Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.
  3. Restrictions underneath Foreigner (Restricted Space) Orders, 1963.
  4. Visa Guide Circumstances/Passport Act 1920, Indian Forest Act, 1927 and Wildlife (Safety) Act, 1972.

 

Who’re the Sentinelese?

The Sentinelese are a negrito tribe who stay on the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans. The inhabitants are related to the Jarawa on the idea of bodily, in addition to linguistic similarities. Their numbers are believed to be lower than 150 and as little as 40.

Based mostly on carbon courting of kitchen middens by the Anthropological Survey of India, Sentinelese presence was confirmed within the islands to 2,00Zero years in the past. Genome research point out that the Andaman tribes might have been on the islands even 30,00Zero years in the past.

 

Why are they stated to be weak?

  • It’s stated they’ve made little to no development within the over 60,00Zero years and nonetheless stay very primitive lives, surviving primarily on fish and coconuts.
  • They’re very weak to germs since they haven’t had contact with the surface world. Even a standard flu virus carried by a customer might wipe out the whole tribe.
  • Because the 1960s, there have been a handful of efforts to succeed in out to the tribe however all have largely failed. They’ve repeatedly, aggressively made it clear that they need to be remoted.

 

Conclusion:

Presently, there’s a one-size-fits-all coverage. As an example, the Sentinelese must be left alone. The rights and the wishes of the Sentinelese have to be revered and nothing is to be achieved by escalating the battle and pressure.


 

Related Articles from Numerous Information Papers:

 

Magnetic north pole drifting quick in the direction of Russia

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: Magnetic and geographical poles- variations, causes for magnetic behaviour of earth, why is Magnetic north pole drifting and what are its implications?

 

Context: Information publications the world over have been reporting that the magnetic north pole is drifting quick from the Canadian Arctic and in the direction of Russia.

 

 

What’s Magnetic North Pole? How is it totally different from Geographic North Pole?

The Earth has two north poles- magnetic and geographic.

  1. Geographic north pole- It’s northern axis round which the earth rotates and is fastened. The North Pole is situated in the midst of the Arctic Ocean.
  2. The Magnetic North Pole (also referred to as the North Dip Pole) is some extent on Ellesmere Island in Northern Canada the place the northern strains of attraction enter the Earth.

A compass needle will level to the Magnetic North Pole – which is totally different from the geographic north.

 

 

Origin of Earth’s magnetism:

The origin of Earth’s magnetism lies in its outer core, a greater than 2,00Zero-km layer of liquid iron and another metals like nickel, that surrounds the central core, or the innermost half. This liquid iron is in fixed movement as a consequence of Earth’s rotation and numerous different causes, and this movement produces a magnetic subject.

 

What’s the difficulty now?

Presently, the magnetic north pole is situated someplace over northern Canada, a reality found in 1831 by Sir James Clark Ross. Since then the magnetic north pole has been shifting throughout the Canadian Arctic in the direction of Russia, and has moved lots of of miles during the last a number of many years. This phenomenon is called the Polar Shift Concept.

Scientists have now realised the tempo of this motion has instantly elevated, fairly considerably, from about 14-15 km per yr until the 1990s to about 55 km per yr in the previous few years. This has led to scientists updating the World Magnetic Mannequin (WMM) that tracks this motion. It was a yr forward of schedule.

 

Why it’s shifting quicker?

Scientists wouldn’t have full readability on. The motion of liquid iron and different metals within the outer core of the Earth is understood to affect the magnetic subject, however this motion is chaotic and turbulent. Scientists don’t absolutely perceive how the motion occurs or why.

The research of the phenomena occurring contained in the earth can solely be carried out not directly or via pc modelling, due to the extraordinarily scorching temperatures prevailing there. Scientists hope that this acceleration within the shifting of magnetic north pole would throw some new insights into the phenomena occurring deep contained in the Earth’s floor.

 

The results:

The whole transportation sector, particularly aviation and delivery, is determined by appropriately understanding the place of magnetic north to chart out their navigation paths. Equally, it’s essential for militaries, who have to know this for firing their missiles or for different functions. Understanding the magnetic north is significant for a variety of civilian purposes as properly.

The compasses which might be utilized in trendy instrumentation are rather more refined, digital and extra correct. That is the rationale why they have to be recalibrated to mirror the change within the magnetic north pole. That is what the unscheduled launch of the WMM has achieved.

 

What’s the World Magnetic Mannequin?

James Clark Ross first situated magnetic north in 1831 within the scattered islands of Canada’s Nunavut territory. Since then, the pole has largely marched north, traversing a whole lot of miles during the last a number of many years.

  • To maintain up with all these modifications, the U.S. Nationwide Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the British Geological Survey developed what ultimately turned often known as the World Magnetic Mannequin.
  • The mannequin is up to date each 5 years, with the final replace in 2015. Between every replace, scientists verify the mannequin’s accuracy towards knowledge from floor magnetic observatories and the European Area Company’s Swarm mission—a trio of magnetic-field mapping satellites that zip round Earth 15 to 16 occasions every day.

 

Sources: Indian Categorical.


Paper 2 and three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Improvement processes and the event business the position of NGOs, SHGs, numerous teams and associations, donors, charities, institutional and different stakeholders.
  2. e-technology in assistance from farmers.

 

Kisan Credit score Card Scheme

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: KCC scheme- options and significance.

 

Context: The Indian Banking Affiliation (IBA) has issued advisory tips requesting banks to waive off the processing, documentation, inspection, ledger folio costs and all different service fees for crop loans as much as Rs three Lakhs or for the Kisan Credit score Card Scheme. The transfer goals to offer direct profit to farmers and ease the strain on them.

 

Marketing campaign:

The Division of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare has introduced the launch of marketing campaign with speedy impact to saturate farmers for monetary inclusion beneath Kisan Credit score Playing cards (KCC).

This marketing campaign shall be launched by way of the Monetary Establishments together with Business Banks, Cooperative Banks and Regional Rural Banks in collaboration with the State Governments. The Division of Monetary Providers has already issued directives to those monetary establishments underneath their purview. There are round 6.95 crore lively KCCs.

 

Kisan Credit score Card Scheme:

  • The Kisan Credit score Card (KCC) scheme was introduced within the Finances speech of 1998-99 to fulfil the monetary necessities of the farmers at numerous levels of farming by means of institutional credit score.
  • The mannequin scheme was ready by the Nationwide Financial institution for Agriculture and Rural Improvement (NABARD) on the advice of V Gupta committee.
  • The KCC scheme is being carried out by the all Co-operative banks, Regional Rural Banks and Public Sector Banks all through the nation.
  • Scheme covers danger of KCC holders towards demise or everlasting incapacity ensuing from accidents.

 

Aims:

  1. To offer satisfactory and well timed credit score help from the banking system to the farmers on the low cost fee of curiosity.
  2. To offer credit score on the time of requirement.
  3. To help post-harvest bills.
  4. To offer Working capital for upkeep of farm belongings and actions allied to agriculture.
  5. Funding credit score requirement for agriculture and allied actions (land improvement, pump units, plantation, drip irrigation and so on.)
  6. Consumption necessities of farmers.

 

Different Salient options of the Scheme:

  • Revolving money credit score facility involving any variety of drawals and repayments inside the restrict.
  • Restrict to be fastened on the idea of operational land holding, cropping sample and scale of finance.
  • Complete manufacturing credit score wants for full yr plus ancillary actions associated to crop manufacturing to be thought-about whereas fixing restrict.
  • Card legitimate for five years topic to annual evaluation. As incentive for good efficiency, credit score limits could possibly be enhanced to deal with improve in prices, change in cropping sample, and so forth.
  • Conversion/reschedulement of loans additionally permissible in case of injury to crops as a consequence of pure calamities.
  • Operations could also be via issuing department (and in addition PACS within the case of Cooperative Banks) via different designated branches on the discretion of financial institution.
  • Crop loans disbursed beneath KCC Scheme for notified crops are coated beneath Crop Insurance coverage Scheme, to guard the curiosity of the farmer towards lack of crop yield brought on by pure calamities, pest assaults and so forth.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Paper three:

Subjects Coated:

  1. Consciousness in area.

 

India’s communication satellite tv for pc GSAT-31 launched from French Guiana

 

What to review?

For Prelims and Mains: GSAT- 31- options, goals and significance.

 

Context: Indian Area Analysis Organisation’s newest communication satellite tv for pc, GSAT-31 was efficiently launched by Arianespace aboard its launch car Ariane 5 from the spaceport in French Guiana just lately.

 

Ariane 5 carried two communication satellites:

  1. Saudi Geostationary Satellite tv for pc 1/Hellas Sat Four and Hellas Sat.
  2. ISRO’s GSAT-31.

 

About GSAT- 31:

  • A telecommunications satellite tv for pc designed and manufactured by the Indian Area Analysis Organisation (ISRO).
  • India’s 40th communication satellite tv for pc and derives its heritage from ISROs earlier INSAT/GSAT satellite tv for pc collection.
  • It is going to be positioned in Geostationary Orbit (36,00Zero km above the equator) utilizing its onboard propulsion system.
  • It has a singular configuration of offering versatile frequency segments and versatile protection. Therefore, it should present communication providers to Indian mainland and islands.
  • It should additionally present DTH Tv Providers, connectivity to VSATs for ATM, Inventory-exchange, Digital Satellite tv for pc Information Gathering (DSNG) and e-governance purposes. The satellite tv for pc may even be used for bulk knowledge switch for a number of rising telecommunication purposes.

 

Key Goals:

  1. Increase the Ku-band transponder capability in Geostationary Orbit for a minimum of 15 years.
  2. Present continuity to operational providers on a number of the in-orbit satellites.
  3. Assist bridge the digital divide within the Indian subcontinent as a part of an formidable Indian area program, whose goals are to develop India whereas pursuing scientific analysis and planetary exploration.

 

Sources: the hindu.


Details for Prelims:

 

Flamingo sanctuary:

Context: A committee, chaired by Union Setting Minister Harsh Vardhan, has accorded wildlife clearance to the Mumbai-Ahmedabad excessive velocity practice hall that encroaches upon a flamingo sanctuary and the Sanjay Gandhi Nationwide Park, the house to leopards, in Mumbai.

About Sanjay Gandhi Nationwide Park: Sanjay Gandhi Nationwide Park is unfold over three districts – Palgar, Thane and Mumbai Suburb. The Nationwide Park is house to a variety of endangered species of wildlife and harbours roughly 800 species of flowering crops, 45 species of mammals, 43 species of reptiles amongst others.

Flamingo sanctuary: Western aspect of the Thane creek is a devoted flamingo sanctuary. Thane Creek is residence to flamingos in addition to different migratory and residential hen species. It’s Maharashtra’s second marine sanctuary after the one at Malvan.

 

Sangeet Natak Akademi:

Context: President of India to confer Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards (Akademi Puraskar) for the Yr 2017.

About Sangeet Natak Akademi:

  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi – India’s nationwide academy for music, dance and drama – is the primary Nationwide Academy of the humanities set-up by the Republic of India. It was created by a decision of Authorities of India.
  • It was arrange in 1952.
  • The academy features because the apex physique of the performing arts within the nation to protect and promote the huge cultural heritage of India expressed in music, dance and drama.
  • It additionally works with governments and artwork academies in states and territories of the nation.
  • The academy Renders recommendation and help to the federal government of India within the process of formulating and implementing insurance policies and programmes within the area. It carries part of the obligations of the state for fostering cultural contacts between areas within the nation, in addition to between India and the world.

The Akademi Awards are the very best nationwide recognition conferred on eminent artistes. Annually the Academy awards Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowships, Ratna Sadsya, to distinguished people for his or her contribution to the sector of arts, music, dance and theatre. Ustad Bismillah Khan award is given to younger artists for his or her expertise within the fields of music, dance and drama.

 

Categorisation of Farmers- talked about in PIB:

Context: In agriculture Census, the operational holdings are categorised in 5 measurement courses as follows:

  1. Marginal: Under 1.00 hectare.
  2. Small: 1.00-2.00 hectare.
  3. Semi- Medium: 2.00-Four.00 hectare.
  4. Medium: Four.00-10.00 hectare.
  5. Giant: 10.00 hectare and above.

 

Thailand makes Siamese preventing fish nationwide aquatic animal:

Context: Siamese preventing fish is known as Thailand’s nationwide aquatic animal.

Recognized within the West as a betta fish, the underwater brawler is well-liked in residence aquariums for its iridescent physique and many-hued tail.

IUCN standing: Weak.


Summaries of Necessary Editorials:

 

Incorrect on the Rohingya:

Supply: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/wrong-on-the-rohingya/article26176985.ece.

 

The Editorial discusses concerning the plight of Rohingyas, India’s place and the necessity for reconsideration of its views based mostly on worldwide conventions, constitutional provisions and ethical points.

 

Why in Information? Based mostly on allegations that India’s repatriation of the Rohingya refugees contravenes worldwide rules on refugee regulation in addition to home constitutional rights, the UN Excessive Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has referred to as for a report from India on the deportation of a gaggle of Rohingya refugees to Myanmar in October 2018.

 

How does the International Framework on Refugees seeks to guard refugees?

In an effort to tackle the issue of mass inter-state inflow of refugees, UN adopted the Conference Referring to the Standing of Refugees in 1951. This was adopted by the Protocol Referring to the Standing of Refugees in 1967.

Most notable options of the Conference is the precept of non-refoulement. The norm requires that “no contracting State shall expel or return a refugee in any method in any respect to the frontiers of territories the place his life or freedom can be threatened on account of his race, faith, nationality, membership of a specific social group or political opinion.”

 

Does it not apply to India?

It’s typically argued that the precept doesn’t bind India since it’s a social gathering to neither the 1951 Conference nor the Protocol.

  • Nevertheless, the prohibition of non-refoulement of refugees constitutes a norm of customary worldwide regulation, which binds even non-parties to the Conference.
  • UN has clarified that it’s binding on all States, together with these which haven’t but grow to be celebration to the 1951 Conference and/or its 1967 Protocol.

 

Constitutional safeguards for refugees:

  • Article 51(c) talks about promotion of respect for worldwide regulation and treaty obligations. Subsequently, India can’t deport rohingyas disrespecting the worldwide treaty.
  • There are few Elementary Rights out there to residents, individuals together with overseas residents– the proper to equality and the best to life, amongst others. Subsequently, the Rohingya refugees, whereas underneath the jurisdiction of the nationwide authorities, can’t be disadvantaged of the proper to life and private liberty.
  • In Nationwide Human Rights Fee v. State of Arunachal Pradesh (1996), the Supreme Courtroom has reiterated this.

 

What’s lacking?

India lacks a selected laws to deal with the issue of refugees, regardless of their growing influx.

The Foreigners Act, 1946, fails to deal with the peculiar issues confronted by refugees as a category. It additionally provides unbridled energy to the Central authorities to deport any overseas citizen.

The Citizenship (Modification) Invoice of 2019 strikingly excludes Muslims from its purview and seeks to offer citizenship solely to Hindu, Christian, Jain, Parsi, Sikh and Buddhist immigrants persecuted in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is very important word that almost all of the Rohingya are Muslims.

Some specialists level out that this limitation on the idea of faith fails to face the check of equality beneath Article 14 of the Structure and offends secularism, a primary function of the Structure.

 

Why Rohingyas want safety?

  • The Rohingya are “among the many world’s least needed and most persecuted individuals.” In Myanmar, they’re denied citizenship, the proper to personal land and journey, or to even marry with out permission, says the report.
  • In response to the UN, the Rohingya difficulty is certainly one of systematic and widespread ethnic cleaning by Myanmar. Subsequently, the discrimination that the Rohingya face is unparalleled in modern world politics.

 

Conclusion:

The deportation of refugees by India isn’t solely illegal however breaches a big ethical obligation. Article 14 of the Common Declaration of Human Rights supplies that everybody has the correct to hunt and luxuriate in in different nations asylum from persecution. Subsequently, India must rethink its earlier determination.

Mains Query: “India’s inner safety considerations should override humanitarian impulses.” Remark within the context of Rohingya disaster.